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Critical Care Anesthesiology

Two people in the simulation labDivision members will provide world-class care for critically ill patients in multiple intensive care units across the institution. The Division’s intensivists will plan and execute clinical research studies, including multicenter studies and prospective clinical and translational studies. All members will maintain an active leadership role as educators for medical students, residents, and fellows. Curricula and educational products will be developed and disseminated both locally and nationally. Members will play a direct role in various patient safety and quality improvement initiatives. Members from the Division will actively participate in all critical care-related committees in the institution, representing the interests of the Department of Anesthesiology, and chairing committees when appropriate. The Division Chief will coordinate and lead these efforts, providing mentoring and guidance.

The missions of the Division of Critical Care are:

  1. Provide exemplary care for critically ill patients
  2. Conduct cutting edge clinical and basic research
  3. Educate the next generation of anesthesiologist-intensivists
  4. Teach the concepts of airway management, resuscitation and pulmonary care to medical students and other health professionals
  5. Harness initiative and innovation in all of these areas

Group of men in the operating room


Faculty members in the Division of Critical Care Medicine provide care for critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), neurosciences intensive care unit, cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU), and trauma/neurotrauma intensive care units. All members are board-certified in anesthesiology, with an additional subspecialty certification in critical care medicine or neurocritical care (UCNS).

Education: Medical students and residents who rotate through the Surgical ICU gain valuable experience in the management of critically ill patients and attend lectures during their rotations. All residents are required to pass the Society of Critical Care Medicine’s Fundamentals of Critical Care Support course during their initial rotation.

The Division offers a Critical Care Medicine Fellowship, accredited by the ACGME. In addition to learning all aspects of care for seriously ill patients, fellows participate in lectures and journal clubs on a weekly basis.



Critical Care Medicine Fellowship - Elizabeth Cox Williams, M.D., Program Director

To find out more about our fellowship program please click here

Important Critical Care Links


1. Mazzeffi M, Henderson R, Krause E, Rabin J, Madathil R, Chow J, Grazioli A, Meyer M, Wu Z,
Tanaka K. In Vitro Comparison of Recombinant and Plasma-Derived von Willebrand Factor
Concentrate for Treatment of Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Adult Extracorporeal
Membrane Oxygenation Patients. Anesth Analg. 2022;134(2):312-321. PMID: 34903705.
2. Tanaka KA, Henderson R, Thangaraju K, Morita Y, Mazzeffi MA, Strauss E, Katneni U,
Buehler PW. In vitro effects of emicizumab on activated clotting time in blood samples from
cardiac surgical patients. Haemophilia. 2022;28(1):183-190. PMID: 34735039.
3. Sarkar C, Lipinski MM. N-acetyl-L-leucine: a promising treatment option for traumatic brain
injury. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Sep;17(9):1957-1958. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.335146. PMID:
35142673; PMCID: PMC8848596.
4. Barrera LA, Mondal S. Ethical and clinical dilemma from an incidental cardiac lipoma in a
young and healthy patient. Ann Card Anaesth. 2022 Jul-Sep;25(3):353-355. doi:
10.4103/aca.ACA_65_21. PMID: 35799567; PMCID: PMC9387624.
5. Mondal S, Faraday N, Gao WD, Singh S, Hebbar S, Hollander KN, Metkus TS, Goeddel LA,
Bauer M, Bush B, Cho B, Cha S, Ibekwe SO, Mladinov D, Rolleri NS, Lester L, Steppan J,
Sheinberg R, Hensley NB, Kapoor A, Dodd-O JM. Selected Transesophageal Echocardiographic
Parameters of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Predict Length of Stay Following Coronary
Artery Bypass Graft-A Prospective Observational Study. J Clin Med. 2022 Jul 8;11(14):3980.
doi: 10.3390/jcm11143980. PMID: 35887745; PMCID: PMC9319456.
6. Ke Y, Proctor JL, Zhang C, Medina J, Miller CHT, Kim J, Grissom TE, Birukova AA, Fiskum
GM, Birukov KG. Induction of endothelial barrier dysfunction by serum factors in rats subjected
to traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. Physiol Rep. 2022 Jul;10(13):e15350. doi:
10.14814/phy2.15350. PMID: 35785527; PMCID: PMC9251847.
7. Kodali BS, Wong MJ, Lankford A, Lee K, Bharadwaj S. Effect of Fetal Delivery on
Pao2/Fio2 Ratio During Mechanical Ventilation in Parturients With COVID-19: A Case Series. A
A Pract. 2022 Jul 25;16(7):e01587. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000001587. PMID: 35878002.
8. Williams B, Zhu J, Zou L, Chao W. Innate immune TLR7 signaling mediates platelet activation
and platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation in murine bacterial sepsis. Platelets. 2022 Nov
17;33(8):1251-1259. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2022.2107627. Epub 2022 Aug 3. PMID:
35920588; PMCID: PMC9833650.
9. Strauss ER, Quinn RW, Pasrija C, Henderson R, Holmes SD, D'Ambra MN, Gammie JS.
Intraoperative echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve translocation. Eur J Cardiothorac
Surg. 2022 Jul 11;62(2):ezac133. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezac133. PMID: 35277715.
10. Shah A, Goerlich CE, Pasrija C, Hirsch J, Fisher S, Odonkor P, Strauss E, Ayares D,
Mohiuddin MM, Griffith BP. Anatomical Differences Between Human and Pig Hearts and Their
Relevance for Cardiac Xenotransplantation Surgical Technique. JACC Case Rep. 2022 Jul
7;4(16):1049-1052. doi: 10.1016/j.jaccas.2022.06.011. PMID: 36062051; PMCID: PMC9434648.
11. Choi S, Mazzeffi MA, Henderson R, Mondal S, Morita Y, Deshpande S, Tanaka KA. The
FIBTEM paradox: Do coronary artery bypass grafting patients with high baseline FIBTEM clot
firmness need more allogeneic blood transfusion? Transfusion. 2022 Oct;62(10):2020-2028. doi:
10.1111/trf.17065. Epub 2022 Aug 20. PMID: 36053950.
12. Powell EK, Lankford AS, Ghneim M, Rabin J, Haase DJ, Dahi S, Deatrick KB, Krause E, Bittle
G, Galvagno SM Jr, Scalea T, Tabatabai A. Decreased PRESET-Score corresponds with
improved survival in COVID-19 veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Perfusion.
2022 Sep 16:2676591221128237. doi: 10.1177/02676591221128237. Epub ahead of print.
PMID: 36114156; PMCID: PMC9482881.
13. Chaisawangwong W, Wang H, Kouo T, Salathe SF, Isser A, Bieler JG, Zhang ML, Livingston
NK, Li S, Horowitz JJ, Samet RE, Zyskind I, Rosenberg AZ, Schneck JP. Cross-reactivity of
SARS-CoV-2- and influenza A-specific T cells in individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2. JCI
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14. Mondal S, Bergbower EAS, Cheung E, Grewal AS, Ghoreishi M, Hollander KN, Anders
MG, Taylor BS, Tanaka KA. Role of Cardiac Anesthesiologists in Intraoperative Enhanced
Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Protocol: A Retrospective Single-Center Study
Analyzing Preliminary Results of a Yearlong ERACS Protocol Implementation. J Cardiothorac
Vasc Anesth. 2022 Nov 11:S1053-0770(22)00794-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2022.11.007. Epub
ahead of print. PMID: 36517338.
15. Fontaine MJ, Lasola JJ, Henderson RA. Perioperative Platelet Transfusion: Not All Platelet
Products Are Created Equal. Curr Anesthesiol Rep. 2022;320-328.
16. Mazzeffi M, Henderson R, Powell E, Strauss E, Williams B, Tanaka K, Yang S, Deatrick K,
Madathil R. Thrombopoietin, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Platelet Count During Veno-arterial
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. ASAIO J. 2022;68(5):e77-e79. PMID: 34081052
17. O'Connor EE, Rednam N, O'Brien R, O'Brien S, Rock P, Levine A, Zeffiro TA. Effects of
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18. Waddell J, McKenna MC, Kristian T. Brain ethanol metabolism and mitochondria. Curr Top
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19. Li Y, Lei Z, Ritzel RM, He J, Li H, Choi HMC, Lipinski MM, Wu J. Impairment of autophagy
after spinal cord injury potentiates neuroinflammation and motor function deficit in mice.
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20. Pottash AE, Levy D, Jeyaram A, Kuo L, Kronstadt SM, Chao W, Jay SM. Combinatorial
microRNA Loading into Extracellular Vesicles for Increased Anti-Inflammatory Efficacy.
Noncoding RNA. 2022 Oct 21;8(5):71. doi: 10.3390/ncrna8050071. PMID: 36287123.
21. Zeineddin A, Wu F, Dong JF, Huang H, Zou L, Chao W, Dorman B, Kozar RA. Traumaderived Extracellular Vesicles are Sufficient to Induce Endothelial Dysfunction and
Coagulopathy. Shock. 2022 Jul 1;58(1):38-44. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000001950. Epub
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22. Huang H, Zhu J, Gu L, Hu J, Feng X, Huang W, Wang S, Yang Y, Cui P, Lin SH, Suen A,
Shimada BK, Williams B, Kane MA, Ke Y, Zhang CO, Birukova AA, Birukov KG, Chao W,
Zou L. TLR7 Mediates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Sepsis by Sensing Extracellular
miR-146a. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2022 Sep;67(3):375-388. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2021-
0551OC. PMID: 35679261.
23. Zeineddin A, Wu F, Chao W, Zou L, Vesselinov R, Chipman AM, Dong JF, Huang H, Pati S,
Kozar RA. Biomarkers of endothelial cell dysfunction persist beyond resuscitation in patients
with hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2022 Nov 1;93(5):572-578. doi:
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24. Brammer J, Wolf G, Baliban SM, Allen JC, Choi M, Kambouris AR, Simon R, Fiskum G, Chao
W, Lopez K, Miller C, Singh NJ, Cross AS. A Nonlethal Full-Thickness Flame Burn Produces a
Seroma Beneath the Forming Eschar, Thereby Promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis in
Mice. J Burn Care Res. 43(4), 792-801. PMID: 34739051. 2022 July
25. Yang S, Williams B, Kaczorowski D, Mazzeffi. Overt Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
with Severe Hypofibrinogenemia During Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
J Extra Corpor Technol. 54(2):148-152. PMID: 35928342.
26. Mondal S, Faraday N, Gao WD, Singh S, Hebbar S, Hollander KN, Metkus TS, Goeddel LA,
Bauer M, Bush B, Cho B, Cha S, Ibekwe SO, Mladinov D, Rolleri NS, Lester L, Steppan J,
Sheinberg R, Hensley NB, Kapoor A, Dodd-O JM. Selected Transesophageal Echocardiographic
Parameters of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Predict Length of Stay Following Coronary
Artery Bypass Graft-A Prospective Observational Study. J Clin Med. 2022 Jul 8;11(14):3980.
PMCID: PMC9319456.
27. Everett L, Davis TA, Deshpande SP, Mondal S. Implementation of Bilateral Rectus Sheath
Blocks in Conjunction With Transversus Thoracis Plane and Pectointercostal Fascial Blocks for
Immediate Postoperative Analgesia After Cardiac Surgery. Cureus. 2022 Jul 5;14(7):e26592.
PMID: 35936156.
28. del Valle M, Hollander K. Diffuse Coronary Artery Spasm After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Aug;36(8 Pt A):2575-2577. PMID: 34583853.
29. Morita Y, Williams B, Yamada Y, Kariya T. Effect of Anesthesia Machine Ventilator and ICU
Ventilator on Intraoperative Oxygenation and Ventilation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022
Aug;36(8 Pt B):3175-3186. PMID: 35624038.
30. Bergbower E, Park PS, Deshpande S. The Good, Bad, and Ugly of Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)
Filters: Anesthetic Management for IVC Filter Retrieval in the Setting of Filter Thrombosis.
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31. Makkad B, Deshpande SP. Con: Interviews for Adult Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Fellowship
Program: In Favor of the In-Person Interview. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022;36(4):1209-
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32. Strauss ER, Odonkor PN, Williams B. Porcine Orthotopic Cardiac Xenotransplantation: The
Role and Perspective of Anesthesiologists. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Aug;36(8 Pt
B):2847-2850. PMID: 35537973.
33. Bergbower EAS, Odonkor P. Con: Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Should not be used in
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34. Strauss ER, Li S, Henderson R, Carpenter R, Guo D, Thangaraju K, Katneni U, Buehler PW,
Gobburu JVS, Tanaka KA. A Pharmacokinetic and Plasmin-Generation Pharmacodynamic
Assessment of a Tranexamic Acid Regimen Designed for Cardiac Surgery With
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35. Smeltz AM, Coleman PJ, Mondal S. Pro: Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Should Be Used
in Infective Endocarditis Patients Coming for Primary or Redo Cardiac Surgery. J Cardiothorac
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36. Fabbro M 2nd, Patel PA, Henderson RA Jr, Bolliger D, Tanaka KA, Mazzeffi MA. Coagulation
and Transfusion Updates From 2021. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Sep;36(9):3447-3458.
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37. Silverman H, Odonkor PN. Reevaluating the Ethical Issues in Porcine-to-Human Heart
Xenotransplantation. Hastings Cent Rep. 2022 Sep;52(5):32-42. PMID: 36226875.
38. Pasrija C, Quinn R, Strauss E, Wang L, Tran D, D'Ambra MN, Gammie JS. Translocation of the
Mitral Valve in an Acute Large Animal Model. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2022 Oct;15(5):1100-
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39. Mueller JH, Hollander K. Use of intraoperative coronary angiography to guide surgical
intervention in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Card Anaesth. 2022 Oct-Dec;25(4):525-
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40. Denault A, Couture EJ, De Medicis É, Shim JK, Mazzeffi M, Henderson RA, Langevin S,
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42. Drillings I, Rivera-Cintron A, Geng-Ramos G. Ultrasound-guided lower thoracic erector spinae
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43. CO, Promnares K, Tanaka KA, Birukov KG, Karki P, Birukova AA. Mechanisms of pulmonary
endothelial permeability and inflammation caused by extracellular histone subunits H3 and H4.
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45. Kim J, Baalachandran R, Li Y, Zhang CO, Ke Y, Karki P, Birukov KG, Birukova AA.
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48. Strauss ER, Odonkor PN, Williams B, Choi S, Mueller J, Taylor B, Shah A, Goerlich CE,
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51. Mondal S, Deshpande SP. Reverse Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy During Liver
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57. Samet RE, Torrie AM, Chembrovich SV, Ihnatsenka BV. Pro-Con Debate: Peripheral Nerve
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58. Mackenzie CF, Dubé GP, Pitman AN. Re-analysis of the PolyHeme Phase III trial dataset:
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61. Hegdekar N, Sarkar C, Bustos S, Ritzel RM, Hanscom M, Ravishankar P, Philkana D, Wu J,
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10.1080/15548627.2023.2167689. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36652438
62. Wang X, Li D, Qin YY, Gong J, Zou L, Chao W, Gong Y. Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency
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63. Mondal S. 'Intrathecal Morphine for Analgesia in Robotic Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery
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65. Ding W, Fischer L, Chen Q, Li Z, Yang L, You Z, Hu K, Wu X, Zhou X, Chao W, Hu P,
Dagnew TM, Dubreuil DM, Wang S, Xia S, Bao C, Zhu S, Chen L, Wang C, Wainger B, Jin P,
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spontaneous pain in mice. J Clin Invest. 2023 Mar 1;133(5):e166408. doi: 10.1172/JCI166408.
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66. Suen AO, Chen F, Wang S, Li Z, Zhu J, Yang Y, Conn O, Lopez K, Cui P, Wechsler L, Cross A,
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Mediates Inflammation and Organ Injury in a Murine Model of Polytrauma. J Immunol. 2023 Jun
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67. Kelly MA, Pinet-Peralta LM, Roque TM, Scalea TM, Delbridge TR, Galvagno SM. The
Maryland (USA) Critical Care Coordination Center (C4): From Pandemic to Permanence.
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68. Walker PF, Galvagno SM, Sachdeva A, Feliciano DV, Scalea TM, O'Connor JV. Operative
Management of Aerodigestive Injuries: Improved Survival Over two Decades. Am Surg. 2023
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69. Powell EK, Krause E, Esposito E, Lankford A, Levine A, Young BAC, Haase DJ, Tabatabai A,
Taylor BS, Scalea TM, Galvagno SM Jr. Time From Infiltrate on Chest Radiograph to
Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in COVID-19 Affects Mortality. ASAIO J.
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70. Powell EK, Reynolds TS, Webb JK, Kundi R, Cantu J, Keville M, O'Connor JV, Stein DM,
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Selected Talks

Justin Richards

  1. Vasopressors in Trauma: A never event?, Department of Anesthesiology, Grenoble Alps University, Grenoble, France 
  2. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy: Break it down or build it up?, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 
  3. Multi-modal Analgesia in the Intensive Care Unit, Maryland Critical Care Project

Megan Anders

  1. Emergency Management of the Surgically Altered Airway, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (Virtual). 2021.  
  2. Spinal Ischemia after Aortic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (Virtual). 2021.
  3. "Surgical Airway Emergencies." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2013.
  4. "Critical Care in Pregnancy." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2014.
  5. "Patient safety and quality improvement in the ICU." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2015.

Samuel Galvagno 

  1. Visiting Professor, “The Anesthesiologist as Resuscitationist,” Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology. April, 2021.
  2. Panelist and Speaker, EndoVascular resuscitation and Trauma Management (EVTM) meets VEITH New Developments in Bleeding Control, Cardiac Arrest, and Shock, “ECMO May Have a Role in Trauma,” New York, NY, Webinar (due to travel restrictions) September, 2020.
  3. "Earning the Anesthetic for RSII". Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2015. 
  4. "Osmotherapy in the Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit". Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2015.
  5. "End Points of Resuscitation in Traumatic Shock." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2015.  
  6. "Perfusion-protective ventilation" Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2017.
  7. "Patient-ventilator interactions, perfusion-protection strategies". Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2017.  
  8. "Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System: Life on MARS." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2019.   
  9. "Endpoints of Resuscitation." Maryland Critical Care Project Podcast. 2020.