Skip to main content

Todd D. Gould, MD

Academic Title:


Primary Appointment:


Secondary Appointment(s):

Neurobiology, Pharmacology


MSTF, 936

Phone (Primary):

(410) 706-5585

Education and Training

Dr. Gould obtained his MD degree from the University of Virginia, and completed fellowship training at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Laboratory of Molecular Pathophysiology and Experimental Therapeutics. His postdoctoral training encompassed molecular, cellular, and behavioral approaches used in translational neuroscience research, and specific studies largely focused on understanding how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects.  


Dr. Gould's laboratory investigates the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers and antidepressants using genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, electroencephalographic, and behavioral methods. We aim to further understand the mechanism of psychiatric drug actions, and assess the feasibility of novel treatment strategies, anticipating that such improved knowledge will lead to earlier interventions and new treatments. The research has additional focus on the development of improved animal models for applications to psychiatry, the functional consequences of mood disorder susceptibility genes, and collaborative translational studies with clinically focused research groups. 

Research/Clinical Keywords

Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Antidepressant Pharmacology, Ketamine, Hydroxynorketamine, Lithium

Highlighted Publications

Zanos P, Moaddel R, Morris PJ, Georgiou P, Fischell J, Elmer GI, Alkondon M, Yuan P, Pribut HJ, Singh NS, Dossou KSS, Fang Y, Huang XP, Mayo CL, Wainer IW, Albuquerque EX, Thompson SM, Thomas CJ, Zarate  CA Jr., Gould TD (2016) Ketamine exerts NMDAR-independent antidepressant actions responsible for therapeutic effects. Nature. 533, 481-486.

Can A, Zanos P, Moaddell R, Kang HJ, Dossou KS, Wainer I, Cheer JR, Frost DO, Huang XP, Gould TD (2016) Effects of ketamine and ketamine metabolites on evoked striatal dopamine release, dopamine receptors, and monoamine transporters.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 359, 159-170.

Zanos P, Nelson ME, Krimmel SR, Highland JN, Georgiou P, Gould TD, Thompson SM (2017) A negative allosteric modulator for a5 subunit-containing GABA receptors exerts a rapid and persistent antidepressant-like action without the side effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in mice. eNeuro. 4. ENEURO.0285-16.2017.

Terrillion CE, Francis TC, Cachope R, Puche AC, Lobo MK, Gould TD (2017) Decreased nucleus accumbens expression of psychiatric disorder risk gene Cacna1c promotes susceptibility to social stress. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology.

Terrillion CE, Bhat S, Dao DT, Cachope R, Puche AC, Cheer JR, Gould TD (2017) Reduced levels of Cacna1c attenuate mesolimbic dopamine system function. Genes, Brain, and Behavior

Research Interests

For details regarding ongoing research please visit:

Links of Interest