UMMC South, 12th floor, Suite S12-D, Room 09A
Education and Training
- Saadi High School, 1959-1965, Abadeh, Iran
- Pre-Med, 1967 Pahlavi University School of Arts and Sciences Shiraz, Iran.
- M.D. 1973 Pahlavi University Medical School in Shiraz, Iran.
Post Graduate Education and Training
- 1972-1973 Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz Iran, Neurosurgical Internship
- 1973-1974 Cook County Hospital, Chicago IL, Surgical Internship
- 1974-1979 Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore MD, Neurosurgical Residency
- 1980-1980 Wellesley Hospital, Toronto Canada, Neurosurgery Fellowship
- 1981-1981 Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton Canada, Neurosurgery Fellowship
- 1989-1990 University of Nebraska, Lincoln Nebraska, Neurosurgery Fellowship
- Diplomate National Board of Medical Examiners, 1977
- Diplomate American Board of Neurosurgery, 1982
- Fellow Royal College Surgeons of Canada, 1983
- 1977 Medicine and Surgery, State of Maryland
- 1989 Medicine and Surgery, State of Nebraska
Born in Iran in 1947, I had my education at Ferdowsi Elementary School (1953-59), Saadi High School (1959-1965), Pahlavi University Schools of Arts and Sciences (1965-1967) and Pahlavi University School of Medicine (1967-1973). My neurosurgical internship at the Pahlavi University (1973) was mentored by Kazem Abbassioun (see ref 5), trained by Earl Walker at the Johns Hopkins. I moved to Chicago in 1973 and had one year of straight surgical internship (1973-1974) at the Cook County Hospital of which 6 months was with Roy Selby at the division of neurosurgery affiliated with the University of Illinois College Of Medicine (Chaired by Oscar Sugar). I completed my neurosurgical training under D M Long at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and in July of 1979 moved back to Shiraz to chair the Division of Neurosurgery. During 1982 and 1983 I was certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery and Royal College of Surgeons of Canada respectively. In 1995 I accepted a full time position at the Division of Neurosurgery, University of Nebraska School of Medicine. In 2000, I was recruited as the Director of Neurotrauma at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine.
Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury
Oner FC, Sadiqi S, Lehr AM, Dvorak MF, Aarabi B, Chapman JR, Fehlings MG, Kandziora F, Rajasekaran S, Vaccaro AR. Towards the development of an outcome instrument for spinal trauma: an international survey of spinal surgeons. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jan 15;40(2):E91-6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000684.PubMed PMID: 25575093.
Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Koerner JD, Dvorak MF, Kandziora F, Rajasekaran S, Aarabi B, Vialle LR, Fehlings MG, Schroeder GD, Reinhold M, Schnake KJ, Bellabarba C, Cumhur Öner F. Reliability analysis of the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system by a worldwide group of naïve spinal surgeons. Eur Spine J. 2015 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25599849
Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, Walters BC, Aarabi B, Dhall SS, Gelb DE, Rozzelle CJ, Ryken TC, Theodore N. Pharmacological therapy for acute spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery. 2015 Mar;76 Suppl 1:S71-83. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000462080.04196.f7. PubMed PMID: 25692371.
Vaccaro AR, Koerner JD, Radcliff KE, Oner FC, Reinhold M, Schnake KJ, Kandziora F, Fehlings MG, Dvorak MF, Aarabi B, Rajasekaran S, Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Vialle LR. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. Eur Spine J. 2015 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25716661.
Le E, Aarabi B, Hersh DS, Shanmuganathan K, Diaz C, Massetti J, Akhtar-Danesh N. Predictors of intramedullary lesion expansion rate on MR images of patients with subaxial spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Mar 6:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25746115.
Schroeder GD, Vaccaro AR, Kepler CK, Koerner JD, Oner FC, Dvorak MF, Vialle LR, Aarabi B, Bellabarba C, Fehlings MG, Schnake KJ, Kandziora F. Establishing The Injury Severity of Thoracolumbar Trauma: Confirmation of the Hierarchical Structure of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Apr 15;40(8):E498-503. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000824. PubMed PMID: 25868104.
Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Fleischman AN, Traynelis VC, Patel A, Dekutoski MB, Harrop J, Wood KB, Schroeder GD, Bransford R, Aarabi B, Okonkwo DO, Arnold PM, Fehlings MG, Nassr A, Shaffrey C, Yoon ST, Kwon B. Treatment of Axis Body Fractures: A Systematic Review. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2015 Jun 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26165730.
Sadiqi S, Oner FC, Dvorak MF, Aarabi B, Schroeder GD, Vaccaro AR. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System - an international study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jul 10. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26165219.
Vaccaro AR, Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Cumhur Oner F, Vialle LR, Kandziora F, Koerner JD, Kurd MF, Reinhold M, Schnake KJ, Chapman J, Aarabi B, Fehlings MG, Dvorak MF. The surgical algorithm for the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system. Eur Spine J. 2015 May 8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25953527.
Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Chen E, Patel AA, Ahn H, Nassr A, Shaffrey CI, Harrop J, Schroeder GD, Agarwala A, Dvorak MF, Fourney DR, Wood KB, Traynelis VC, Yoon ST, Fehlings MG, Aarabi B. Treatment of isolated cervical facet fractures: a systematic review. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Oct 30:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26516667.
Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Koerner JD, Chapman JR, Bellabarba C, Oner FC, Reinhold M, Dvorak MF, Aarabi B, Vialle L, Fehlings MG, Rajasekaran S, Kandziora F, Schnake KJ, Vaccaro AR. Is there a regional difference in morphology interpretation of A3 and A4 fractures among different cultures? J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Oct 9:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26451663.
Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Koerner JD, Oner FC, Fehlings MG, Aarabi B, Dvorak MF, Reinhold M, Kandziora F, Bellabarba C, Chapman JR, Vialle LR, Vaccaro AR. A Worldwide Analysis of the Reliability and Perceived Importance of an Injury to the Posterior Ligamentous Complex in AO Type A Fractures. Global Spine J. 2015 Oct;5(5):378-82. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549034. Epub 2015 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 26430591; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4577328.
Slavin J, Beaty N, Raghavan P, Sansur C, Aarabi B. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Cervical Spinal Cord Injury from Gunshot Wounds from Handguns. World Neurosurg. 2015 Sep 1. pii: S1878-8750(15)01049-9. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.08.033. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26341429.
Oner FC, Sadiqi S, Lehr AM, Aarabi B, Dunn RN, Dvorak MF, Fehlings MG, Kandziora F, Post MW, Rajasekaran S, Vialle L, Vaccaro AR. Toward Developing a Specific Outcome Instrument for Spine Trauma: An Empirical Cross-sectional Multicenter ICF-Based Study by AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Sep 1;40(17):1371-9. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001009. PubMed PMID: 26323025.
Schroeder GD, Kepler CK, Koerner JD, Oner FC, Fehlings MG, Aarabi B, Schnake KJ, Rajasekaran S, Kandziora F, Vialle LR, Vaccaro AR. Can a Thoracolumbar Injury Severity Score Be Uniformly Applied from T1 to L5 or Are Modifications Necessary? Global Spine J. 2015 Aug;5(4):339-45. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549035. Epub 2015 Mar 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 26225284; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4516738.
Kepler CK, Vaccaro AR, Fleischman AN, Traynelis VC, Patel AA, Dekutoski MB, Harrop J, Wood KB, Schroeder GD, Bransford R, Aarabi B, Okonkwo DO, Arnold PM, Fehlings MG, Nassr A, Shaffrey C, Yoon ST, Kwon B. Treatment of Axis Body Fractures: A Systematic Review. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2015 Oct 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26165730.
Schroeder GD, Vaccaro AR, Kepler CK, Koerner JD, Oner FC, Dvorak MF, Vialle LR, Aarabi B, Bellabarba C, Fehlings MG, Schnake KJ, Kandziora F. Establishing the injury severity of thoracolumbar trauma: confirmation of the hierarchical structure of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Apr 15;40(8):E498-503. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000824. PubMed PMID: 25868104
An introduction to the treatment of craniocerebral battle wounds. Bizhan Aarabi (ed), Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Research. Shiraz University Press, 1987.
Beyond Coma: Brain Death, Bizhan Aarabi (ed) Parvaz Press, Shiraz, Iran, 1993, 150 pages.
Missile Injuries of the Head and Neck. Bizhan Aarabi and Howard Kaufman (eds), American Association of Neurological Surgeons Publications Office, New Hampshire, 1999.
Neurotrauma including cervical spinal cord and traumatic brain injuries are my main interests. While at Hopkins, I worked on cold induced vasogenic brain edema in a cat model for one year. In this investigation it was learned that lesion excision completely interrupted edema spread. This study was completed in the Neurosurgical Department laboratory facilities with Drs. Donlin M Long and Melvin Epstein. We also evaluated the effectiveness of choleratoxin on the genesis and spread of cold induced brain edema in cats. From 1980-1988, while at the Shiraz University Medical School, I studied vascular, infectious and epileptic complications of penetrating brain injury in war casualties of Iran-Iraq war. At the University of Nebraska I was the PI of two major multicenter therapeutic trials in severe head injury: CP101-606 and Selfotel. At the University of Maryland we have been intensely involved in PRCT studies of Dexanabinol and COBRIT in TBI. From 2000-2006 we investigated the merits of decompressive craniectomy in severe head injury. One of the clinical studies I am very much interested in is traumatic cervical central cord syndrome. In 2007 the State of Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene funded a randomized study of the timing of decompression in central cord syndrome which was completed in 2009. From 2010-2016 we have completed a phase I/II effect of Riluzole on cervical SCI (2010-2012), Glyburide and Ischemic stroke (2011-2013), Serum biomarkers in SCI (2011-2012, The PRCT RISCIS (Riluzole in Spinal Cord Injury Study) funded by AO Foundation, Stem cell in SCI (2015 Stem Cell Incorporated). Clinically my main interest is genesis and expansion of spinal cord edema following cervical spinal core injury and central cord syndrome. From 2007-2016 we have completed three validated Morphology Classification of thoracolumbar and cervical spine fracture subluxations. We are currently screening patients for RCT VERTEX study in SCI.
My primary interest and specialty is cervical traumatic spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury
- 1973: Valedictorian, Pahlavi University Medical School
- 1973: Highest Achievement Award, Shiraz University Medical School
- 1987: First Prize Award, “Traumatic aneurysms due to missile head wounds”
- 1990: Medal of Honor and Achievement, Iranian Government
- 2001: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2002: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2003: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2004: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2006: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2007: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
- 2010: Hero Award, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center
09/17/2015- Co-Investigator 1% PI: D. Stein
Present "Assessing the Accuracy and the Impact of Standard Practice Ventricular Drainage on Intracranial Pressure Measurements Following TBI"
03/16/2015- Principal Investigator 3%
Present "A Single-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Arm, Phase II Proof-of-Concept Study of the Safety and Efficacy of HuCNS-SC Transplantation in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury"
Stem Cell, Inc.
11/08/2013- Principal Investigator 5%
Present "A Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Riluzole in Acute Spinal Cord Injury"
AO Spine North America
06/01/2013- Principal Investigator 5%
Present "A Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded, Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Riluzole in Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Christopher Reeve Foundation
06/01/2016 Principal Investigator 5%
"A Phase 2b/3, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of VX-210 in Subjects With Acute Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.
Vertex Study Number: VX15-210-101
06/01/2007- Principal Investigator (3%)
05/2013 "North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury"
Christopher Reeve Foundation
NCT00178724; CTN1-2004(RG); W81XWH-07-1/0361
07/2007- Co-Investigator (15%) PI: H.M. Eisenberg
12/2012 "Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment Trial (CORBIT)"
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child and Health and Human Development @NIH
NCT00545662; BA-HD042, HD042687-04, HD042738-05, HD042678-03, HD042653-05, HD042689-05, HD042736-04, HD 042686-01A1, HD042652-04, HD042823-05
04/2010- Principal Investigator (3%)
08/2012 "Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Riluzole in Patients With Traumatic Acute Spinal Cord Injury"
Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation and The Department of Defense
ID #HP-40687; IND 79,600; NCT00876889
2011-2015 Co-Investigator PI: H.M. Eisenberg
"Glyburide: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Treatment Study of Glyburide in Ischemic Stroke"
Department of Defense/USA MRMC
2011-2012 Co-Investigator PI: H.M. Eisenberg
"Serum Biomarkers: Correlation between biomarkers, MR imaging, and six month ASIA exam in spinal cord injury patients"
Department of Defense
04/2009- Co-Investigator (1%) PI: H.M. Eisenberg
05/2010 "A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Dose Escalation Study to Investigate the Safety and Pharmacokinetics after Single and Multiple Doses of SLV334 in Sequential Cohorts of Patients with Moderate and
Severe Traumatic Brain Injury"
$17,200.00 per patient, contracted for five
10/27/2009- Co-Principal Investigator (1%) PI: H.M. Eisenberg
03/30/2010 "Multi-center prospective randomized trial of early decompressive Craniectomy in patients with severe brain injury (DECRA)"
ANZICS CTG: Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group
ID # HP-42186; CCT ID # 0396-09; NCT00155987
$1,200.00 per patient; contracted for five
Professional Society Memberships
- 1982-Present: Member, American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons
- 1983-Present: Member, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
- 1984-Present: Member, Congress of Neurological Surgeons
- 1990-2001: Member, Joint Section on Tumors of the AANS/CNS
- 1992-2001: Member, New York Academy of Sciences
- 1993-Present: Member, Joint Section on Trauma of the AANS/CNS
- 1994-2005: Member, American Medical Association
- 1994-Present: Member, American College of Surgeons
- 2001-2004: Member, MedChi, State of Maryland Medical Society
- 2005-2009: University of Maryland School of Medicine Council
- 2006-2010: Liaison, Physician Compliance Liaison, Department of Neurosurgery
- 2006-2007: Director, University of Maryland Student Neurosurgical Education
- 2007-2014: Member, Institutional Review Board, University of Maryland, Baltimore
- 1979-1990: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, Neurosurgery
- 1990-1995: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Professor and Chairman, Neurosurgery
- 1995-2000: University of Nebraska Medical Center, Associate Professor, Neurosurgery
- 2000-2007: University of Maryland School of Medicine, Associate Professor, Neurosurgery
- 2000-Present: R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Director of Neurotrauma, UMMC
- 2007-Present: University of Maryland School of Medicine, Professor, Neurosurgery