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Li-Qun Zhang, PhD

Academic Title:


Primary Appointment:

Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Secondary Appointment(s):


Additional Title:

Professor, Department of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Science Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland, Baltimore Professor, Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park


AHRB, 505A

Phone (Primary):

(410) 706-2145


(410) 706-6387

Education and Training

Li-Qun Zhang received the B.S. degree from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biomedical engineering from Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA, followed by postdoctoral training in rehabilitation at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.  


Li-Qun Zhang is a Professor in Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Science and in Orthopaedics, University of Maryland, Baltimore, and a Professor in Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.  His research interests include conducting diagnosis, passive and active movement training, and outcome evaluations of sensorimotor impairments in stroke survivors and children with cerebral palsy using novel rehabilitation protocols and intelligent rehabilitation devices, investigation of reflex and nonreflex factors contributing to movement impairments and spasticity at the multi-joint, single-joint, and muscle fascicle and tendon levels, investigation of musculoskeletal injury mechanisms and rehabilitation/prevention of injuries, and furthermore translating research from lab to new rehabilitation protocols to improve treatment of injuries/impairments in clinical practice. He has published about 150 peer-reviewed journal articles.

Research/Clinical Keywords

Rehabilitation Robotics, Neurorehabilitation, Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Ultrasound, Medical Device

Highlighted Publications

  • Xu, D., Kang, S. H., Lee, S. J., Oppizzi, G., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2023. Multi-Joint Assessment of Proprioception Impairments Post Stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2023.08.029
  • Koh, K., Oppizzi, G., Kehs, G., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2023. Abnormal coordination of upper extremity during target reaching in persons post stroke. Scientific Reports. 13, 12838. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-39684-4
  • Zhang, C., M. Z. Huang, G. J. Kehs, R. G. Braun, J. W. Cole and L.-Q. Zhang (2021). "Intensive In-bed Sensorimotor Rehabilitation of Acute Stroke Survivors with Severe Hemiplegia Using a Wearable Ankle Robot." IEEE Trans Neur Syst Rehab Eng 29: 2252-2259.
  • Lee, S. J., Y. Ren, A. H.-I. Chang, J. M. Press, M. C. Hochberg and L.-Q. Zhang (2020). "Plane Dependent Subject-Specific Neuromuscular Training for Knee Rehabilitation." IEEE Trans Neur Syst Rehab Eng 28(8): 1876-1883. Doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2020.3005119
  • Kang, S. H., S. J. Lee, J. M. Press and L.-Q. Zhang (2019). "Real-Time Three-Dimensional Knee Moment Estimation in Knee Osteoarthritis: Toward Biodynamic Knee Osteoarthritis Evaluation and Training." IEEE Trans Neural Syst rehab Eng 27(6): 1263-1272.Zhang, L.-Q., J. Son, H.-S. Park, S. H. Kang, Y. Lee and Y. Ren (2017). "Changes of Shoulder, Elbow and Wrist Stiffness Matrix Post Stroke." IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehab Eng 25(7): 844-851.
  • Liu, J., S. H. Kang, D. Xu, Y. Ren, S. J. Lee and L.-Q. Zhang (2017). "EMG-Based Continuous and Simultaneous Estimation of Arm Kinematics in Able-Bodied Individuals and Stroke Survivors." Frontiers in Neuroscience 11(480).
  • Koh, J. L., Yi, S. J., Ren, Y., Zimmerman, T. A., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2016. Tibiofemoral Contact Mechanics with Horizontal Cleavage Tear and Resection of the Medial Meniscus in the Human Knee. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 98, 1829-1836.
  • Chen, K., Wu, Y.-N., Ren, Y., Liu, L., Gaebler-Spira, D., Tankard, K., Lee, J., Song, W., Wang, M., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2016. Home versus laboratory-based robotic ankle training for children with cerebral palsy: A pilot randomized controlled trial assessing feasibility and outcomes. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 97, 1237-1243.

Additional Publication Citations

  • Xu, D., Y.-N. Wu, D. Gaebler-Spira, F. Gao, N. J. Clegg, M. R. Delgado and L.-Q. Zhang (2020). "Neural and non-neural contributions to ankle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy." Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 62(9): 1040-1046. org/10.1111/dmcn.14506
  • Chen, K., B. Xiong, Y. Ren, A. Dvorkin, D. Gaebler, C. E. Sisung and L.-Q. Zhang (2018). "Ankle passive and active movement training of children with acute brain injury using a wearable robot." J Rehab Med 50: 30-36.
  • Lee, S. J., D. Jin, S. H. Kang, D. Gaebler-Spira and L.-Q. Zhang (2019). "Combined Ankle/Knee Stretching and Pivoting Stepping Training for Children with Cerebral Palsy." IEEE Trans Neural Syst rehab Eng 27(9): 1743-1752, DOI: 10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2934139.
  • Lee, S. J. and L.-Q. Zhang (2018). "Learning Patterns of Pivoting Neuromuscular Control Training under Slippery Conditions: A Learning Model for Therapy Scheduling." IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 65: in press.
  • Wu, Y.-N., H.-S. Park, J.-J. Chen, Y. Ren, E. J. Roth and L.-Q. Zhang (2018). "Position as Well as Velocity Dependence of Spasticity—Four-Dimensional Characterizations of Catch Angle." Frontiers in Neurology 9(863): 1-10.
  • Koh, J. L., T. A. Zimmerman, S. D. Patel, Y. Ren, D. Xu and L.-Q. Zhang (2018). "Tibiofemoral Contact Mechanics With Horizontal Cleavage Tears and Resection of the Lateral Meniscus in the Human Knee." Clin Orthop Rel Res 46(11): 2262-2270.
  • Friedman, A. D., M. E. Gerber, M. K. Bhayani, K. Kuchta, K. Kumar, A. Ma, Y. Ren and L.-Q. Zhang (2018). "Ideal Characteristics of a Laser-Protected Endotracheal Tube: ABEA and AHNS Member Survey and Biomechanical Testing." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 127(4): 258-265.
  • Ren, Y., Y.-N. Wu, C.-Y. Yang, T. Xu, R. L. Harvey and L.-Q. Zhang (2017). "Developing a wearable ankle rehabilitation robot for in-bed acute stroke rehabilitation." IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehab Eng 25(6): 589-596.
  • Lee, Y., K. Chen, Y. Ren, J. Son, B. A. Cohen, J. A. Sliwa and L.-Q. Zhang (2017). "Robot-guided ankle sensorimotor rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis." Multiple Sclerosis Rel Disorders 11: 65-70.
  • Tsai, L.-C., Ren, Y., Gaebler-Spira, D. J., Revivo, G. A., & Zhang, L.-Q. (2017). Effects of an off-axis pivoting elliptical training program on gait function in persons with spastic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study. Am J Phys Med Rehab, 96(7), 515-522
  • Butler, B., J. Peelman, L. Q. Zhang, M. Kwasny and D. Nagle (2017). "The effect of in-situ decompression on ulnar nerve stability: a cadaveric study." Journal of Hand Surgery (Euro Vol) 42(7): 715-719.
  • Wu, Y.-N., Ren, Y., Tsai, L.-C., Gao, F., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2016. In Vivo Simultaneous Evaluations of Sarcomere Imaging and Muscle Fiber Tension. J Biomech. 49, 797-801.
  • Lee, S. S. M., Gaebler-Spira, D., Zhang, L.-Q., Rymer, W. Z., and Steele, K. M., 2016. Use of shear wave ultrasound elastography to quantify muscle properties in cerebral palsy. Clinical Biomechanics. 31, 20-28.
  • Lin, C., Tsai, L.-C., Press, J. M., Ren, Y., Chung, S. G., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2016. Lower Limb Muscle Activation Patterns During Off-Axis Elliptical Compared to Conventional Gluteal Muscle Strengthening Exercises. J Sport Rehab. 25, 164-172.
  • Guelich, D. R., Xu, D., Koh, J. L., Nuber, G. W., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2016. Different Roles of the Medial and Lateral Hamstrings in Unloading the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. The Knee. 23, 97-101.
  • Ghodasra, J. H., Weatherford, B. M., Nickoli, M. S., Daley, E. L., Chen, K., Zhang, L.-Q., Hashmi, S. Z., Hsu, E. L., and Hsu, W. K., 2016. The effect of rhBMP-2 in a novel, non-instrumented extremity nonunion model. Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 21, 79-85.
  • Switaj MD, P. J., Wetzel MD, R. J., Jain MD, N. P., Weatherford MD, B. M., Ren PhD, Y., Zhang PhD, L.-Q., and Merk MD, B. R., 2016. Comparison of modern locked plating and antiglide plating for fixation of osteoporotic distal fibular fractures. Foot and Ankle Surgery. 22, 158-162.
  • Zhao, H., Ren, Y., Roth, E. J., Harvey, R., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2015. Concurrent Biomechanical Changes of Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscle Fascicles and Achilles Tendon Post Stroke. J Appl Physiol. 118, 863–871.
  • Tsai, L.-C., Lee, S. J., Yang, A., Ren, Y., Press, J. M., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2015a. Effects of off-axis elliptical training on reducing pain and improving knee function in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Clin J Sports Med. 25, 487-493.
  • Lee, S. J., Ren, Y., Kang, S. H., Geiger, F., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2015. Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioception in females and males. Euro J Appl Physiol. 115, 775-784.
  • Xu, D., Guo, X., Yang, C.-Y., and Zhang, L.-Q., Assessment of Hyperactive Reflexes in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. BioMed Research International. 2015.
  • Lee, S. J., Ren, Y., Chang, A. H., Geiger, F., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Effects of Pivoting Neuromuscular Training on Pivoting Control and Proprioception. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 46, 1400-1409.
  • Sukal-Moulton, T., Clancy, T., Zhang, L.-Q., and Gaebler-Spira, D., 2014. Clinical application of a robotic ankle training program for cerebral palsy compared to the research laboratory application: Does it translate to practice? Arch Phys Med Rehab. 95, 1433-1440.
  • Kang, S. H., Lee, S. J., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Real-Time Tracking of Knee Adduction Moment in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 231, 9-17.
  • Kang, S. H., Lee, S. J., Ren, Y., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Real-Time Knee Adduction Moment Feedback Training Using an Elliptical Trainer. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehab Eng. 22, 334 - 343.
  • Zhang, L.-Q., Chen, K., Kang, S. H., Sliwa, J. A., Cohen, B. A., Rymer, W. Z., and Wang, L., 2014. Characterizations of reflex and nonreflex changes in spastic multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Meth. 231, 3-8.
  • Fung, D. T., Lee, S. J., Ren, Y., Kang, S. H., Liu, S. Q., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Impingement Analysis with 3-D Geometric Characterizations of ACL Pseudofibers and Intercondylar Notch. J Med Biol Eng. 34, 116-122.
  • Haddad, S. L., Hsu, A. R., Templin, C. R., Ren, Y., Stewart, B., Kohli, N. S., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Effects of Continuous Irrigation During Burring on Thermal Necrosis and Fusion Strength in a Rabbit Arthrodesis Model. Foot & Ankle Int. 35, 796 -801.
  • Chang, A. H., Lee, S. J., Zhao, H., Ren, Y., and Zhang, L.-Q., 2014. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis. J Biomech. 47, 360-366.

Research Interests