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Stefanie N. Vogel, PhD

Academic Title:


Primary Appointment:

Microbiology and Immunology

Secondary Appointment(s):


Additional Title:

Professor of Microbiology and Immunology (primary) Professor of Medicine (secondary)


HH 310

Phone (Primary):

410-706-4838 (office)

Phone (Secondary):

410-706-4716 (lab)



Education and Training

University of Maryland, College Park, Dept. of Microbiology, College Park, MD; B.S., 1972

University of Maryland, College Park, Dept. of Microbiology, College Park, MD; Ph.D., 1977 (Immunology)

National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Post-doctoral fellow (1977-1980)


After more than 40 years in my own laboratory, my record shows that I have developed the scientific expertise and leadership skills required to direct multiple concurrent projects, multi-component projects, and a training program. I am most proud of my first grant that was continuously funded by the NIH for 33 years, during which time it was designated an NIH “Merit Award,” and my recent award of being named ”Distinguished University Professor” by the UMSOM. My focus throughout this time has not changed fundamentally: the analysis of the basic underlying mechanisms by which macrophage differentiation facilitates or restricts infectious agents or tumor growth. My laboratory has made seminal contributions to the area of immunology that we now call “innate immunity,” and specifically, the mechanisms by which Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is regulated.

The creative use of genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches, combined with unique animal models of infection, has led to our most recent, highly translational work, resulting in novel therapeutic approaches for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), development of small molecule TLR antagonists based on the structural interactions of innate signaling molecules, and a prototype vaccine for the biothreat agent, Francisella tularensis.

We  have developed a murine model of TLR4 hyporesponsiveness that expresses homologs of two co-segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human TLR4 that reduce TLR4 signaling. These SNPs are expressed in patients with many infectious inflammatory diseases and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and we have recently published that “TLR4-SNP” mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exhibit increased sensitivity to Gram negative infection and RSV, and are exquisitely sensitive to induction of chemically-induced colitis.  The creative use of genetic, molecular, and biochemical approaches, combined with unique animal models of infection and trauma, has led to our most recent, highly translational work, resulting in novel therapeutic approaches for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), development of small molecule TLR antagonists, and prototype vaccines for RSV and the biothreat agent, Francisella tularensis, and the therapeutic use of a PPARgamma agonist ligand to treat dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in the TLR4-SNP mice. In toto, I have published >300 peer-reviewed publications and >50 invited works. Our work is highly translational and has led to the identification of multiple therapeutic approaches for mitigating acute lung injury induced by virus infection.

Mentoring the next generation of scientists is among the most important contributions I have made to science. In addition to teaching microbiology and Immunology to graduate students and medical students, I have mentored more than 39 post-doctoral fellows and 14 graduate students, the majority of whom have remained in science. I am particularly proud of my trainees, with many now in leadership positions at universities, industry, and the NIH or FDA, or immunology societies as bench scientists or administrators. I have directed a T32 Program entitled, “Signaling Pathways in Innate Immunity,” for the past 10 years and we are currently in year 11.

Research/Clinical Keywords

macrophages, lipopolysaccharide, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophage differentiation, signaling pathways, interferons, cytokines, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Francisella tularensis, vaccines, dextran sodium sulfate

Highlighted Publications

A. E. Medvedev, A. Lentschat, D. B. Kuhns, J. C. G. Blanco, C. Salkowski, S. Zhang, M. Arditi, J. I. Gallin, and S. N. Vogel.  Distinct mutations in IRAK-4 confer hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and Interleukin-1 in a patient with recurrent bacterial infections.  J. Exp. Med.  198: 521-531 (2003).

A. A. Awomoyi, P. Rallabhandi, T. I. Pollin, E. Lorenz, M. B. Sztein, M. S. Boukhvalova, V. G. Hemming, J. C. G. Blanco, and S. N. Vogel.  Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with symptomatic Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in high-risk infants and young children.  J. Immunol. 179: 3171-3177 (2007).

K. A. Shirey, W. Lai, A. J. Scott, M. Lipsky, P. Mistry, L. M. Pletneva, C. L. Karp, J. McAlees, T. L. Gioannini, J. Weiss, W. H. Chen, R, K. Ernst, D. P. Rossignol, F. Gusovsky, J. C. Blanco, and S. N. Vogel.  The TLR4 antagonist, Eritoran, protects mice from lethal influenza infection. Nature 497:498-502 (2013) PMC3725830

J. Blanco, M . S. Boukhvalova, L. M. Pletneva, K. Shirey, and S. N. Vogel. A recombinant anchorless Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein/monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) vaccine protects against RSV-induced replication and lung pathology. Vaccine 32:1495-500 (2014).   PMC3947896.

D. J. Perkins, R. Rajaiah, S. M. Tennant, G. Ramachandran, T. H. Dyson, and S. N. Vogel. Salmonella typhimurium co-opts the host type I interferon system to selectively restrict macrophage innate immune transcriptional responses. J. Immunol 195: 2461-2471 (2015). PMC4546913

Additional Publication Citations

The following link provides a full list of my published work (>300 publications):


Awards and Affiliations

Honors and Awards:

  • 1968 Honors Program Scholarship, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
  • 1972 B.S. with Highest Honors; Phi Beta Kappa
  • 1973 Award from the Department of the Army for computer programming
  • 1976 Predoctoral fellowship award from the American Association of University Women
  • 1978 USPHS Postdoctoral Fellowship (Accepted); ACS Postdoctoral Fellowship (Not Accepted)
  • 1979 Outstanding Young Women of America Award; 1993  Outstanding Instructor Award
  • 1997 Special Lecturer Award, 70th Annual Congress of Japanese Society for Bacteriology
  • 2000 MERIT Award for NIH Grant AI-18797
  • 2001 and 2002 Outstanding Instructor Award, USUHS
  • 2004-2006 President, International Endotoxin Society
  • 2004 Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
  • 2004 Bonazinga Award (highest scientific award from the Soc. Leukocyte Biology)
  • 2004-2009 Yearly teaching commendations from successive UMB medical school Classes of 2007 to 2011
  • 2010 Bullard Lecturer, USUHS
  • 2011 Fellow, AAAS
  • 2014 Milstein Award (highest scientific award from the Intl. Cytokine and Interferon Society)
  • 2014 Frederik Bang Award (highest scientific award from the International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society)
  • 2015 Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Univ. of Maryland College Park, Distinguished Alumna Award.
  • 2015 Women in Inflammation Award, International Association of Inflammation Societies/Inflammation Research Association.


  • American Association of Immunologists (Active)
  • American Society of Microbiology (Active)
  • Intl. Cytokine and Interferon Society (Active)
  • Society for Leukocyte Biology (Active)
  • Intl. Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society (Active; past-President)
  • AAAS (Active)

Grants and Contracts

Ongoing Research Support:

R01 AI10451 (MPI: Vogel/Blanco)
Eritoran (E5564), a TLR4 antagonist, as a novel therapeutic for influenza The goal of this grant is to optimize the protective effect of the TLR4 antagonist, Eritoran, against influenza, in an effort to move it to the clinic. This grant was in response to an RFA for advanced products.                           

R56 AI18797 (PI: Vogel)
7/1/2015-6/30/2016 (in NCE to 6/30/2017)
Differentiative Signals for Macrophage ActivationThis project analyzes the exogenous and endogenous signals that stimulate macrophages to differentiate. This "bridge loan" grant replaced my continuously funded NIH grant that completed its 32th year of funding on 4/1/15.

T32 AI095150 (PI: Vogel)
NIH/NIAID Signaling Pathways in Innate Immunity

Community Service

Board Member, Vantage House Life-Time Care Facility, Columbia, MD

Professional Activity

Outside Service

  • Deputy Editor - Journal of Immunology (1997 – 2003); Section Editor (July 1988 - July 92)
  • Editor – Innate Immunity (July 1993 - Present); J. Inflammation (1994 - 97)
  • Ad hoc reviewer for J. Immunology, Infection and Immunity, J. Leuk. Biol., Nature, JEM, and others
  • Ad hoc reviewer for grants from the NIH, NSF, NRCC, and others
  • American Association of Immunologists – Program Committee (1990-93)
  • Delegate, Intl. Council, Intl. Soc. for Interferon and Cytokine Res. (Jan. 1991-2000)
  • Meeting Committee, Intl Soc. for IFN and Cytokine Research (1995-97); Honors & Awards Cmte (1996 -98)
  • Chairman, Board of Academic Councilors, Henry M. Jackson Foundation (1992-97; 2001-2002)
  • Member, Board of Directors, FAES (1992-95; 1995-98); Lecturer, FAES Graduate Immunology (1995-2003)
  • Ad hoc member of NIAID Council, February 1994; May 2002; NCCAM Council, June 2003
  • Honors and Awards Committee, Intl Cytokine Society (1994;1995); Intl Endotoxin Society (1996 - present)
  • Scientific Councilor, Intl. Endotoxin Society (1998-2004) and Soc. Leukocyte Biology (1999-2004)
  • Nomination Committee, Soc. Leukocyte Biology (2005-2009)
  • Review Panel for Research Efforts at CBER, FDA (1998; 2002); FASEB Publications Committee (2003-2006)
  • FDA Senior Biomedical Res. Service Credentials Committee (1998);
  • President, Intl. Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Soc. (IEIIS) (2004-2006);
  • Council Member, NCCAM, NIH (2005-2008)
  • Member, External Advisory Committee, Maryland Pathogen Research Institute (MPRI) (2008-present)
  • Full Member, Immunity and Host Defense (IHD) study section (2010-2015)