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Patrick N. Odonkor, MB,ChB

Academic Title:

Associate Professor

Primary Appointment:


Administrative Title:

Anesthesiology Chief for the Cardiothoracic Division



Phone (Primary):

(410) 328-9971

Phone (Secondary):



(410) 328-3092

Education and Training



M.B.,Ch.B., University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana


Internship, Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York


Residency, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD


Chief Resident, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD


Fellowship, Department of Anesthesiology, Cardiothoracic Anesthesia University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD

Faculty Appointments


Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD


Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD

Additional Appointments


House Officer, Department of Pediatrics & Surgery, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana


Medical Officer, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana

Highlighted Publications

  1. Fahy BG, Hasnain JU, Flowers JL, Plotkin JS, Odonkor P, Ferguson MK. Transesophageal echocardiographic detection of gas embolism and cardiac valvular dysfunction during laparoscopic nephrectomy. Anesth Analg. 1999;88(3):500-4. PMID: 10071994.
  2. Gammie JS, Brown JW, Brown JM, Poston RS, Pierson RN, Odonkor PN, White CS, Gottdiener JS, Griffith. Aortic valve bypass for the high-risk patient with aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;81(5):1605-10. PMID: 16631642.
  3. Gammie JS, Griffith BP, Brown JM, Santos MJ, Roberts K, Odonkor PN, Gottdiener JS. Hemodynamic Efficacy of the Aortic Valve Bypass (Apicoaortic Conduit): Assessment by 2D-Doppler Echocardiography: MP9. Innovations:Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery. 2006;1(4):188-189.
  4. Reicher B, Poston RS, Mehra MR, Joshi A, Odonkor P, Kon Z, Reyes PA, Zimrin DA. Simultaneous "Hybrid" percutaneous coronary intervention and minimally invasive surgical bypass grafting: feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes. Am Heart J. 2007;155(4):661-7. PMID: 18371473.
  5. Gammie JS, Krowsoski LS, Brown JM, Odonkor PN, Young CA, Santos MJ, Gottdiener JS, Griffith BP. Aortic valve bypass surgery: Midterm clinical outcomes in a high-risk aortic stenosis population. Circulation. 2008;118(14):1460-6. PMID: 18794389.
  6. Bonatti J, Garcia J, Rehman A, Odonkor P, Haque R, Zimrin D, Griffith B. On-pump beating-heart with axillary artery perfusion: A solution for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting? Heart Surg Forum. 2009;12(3):E131-3. PMID: 19546060.
  7. Rehman A, Garcia J, Deshpande S, Fitzpatrick M, Odonkor P, Zimrin D, Griffith B, Bonatti J. Poor left ventricular function is not a contraindication for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. Heart Surg Forum. 2009;12(3):E152-4. PMID: 19546067.
  8. Rehman A, Garcia J, Deshpande S, Odonkor P, Reicher B, Vesely M, Zimrin D, Griffith B, Bonatti J. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting is feasible in morbidly obese patients. Heart Surg Forum. 2009;12(3):E134-6. PMID: 19546061.
  9. Odonkor P, Stansbury LG, Gammie JS, Rock P, Fitzpatrick M, Grigore AM. Anesthetic management of patients undergoing aortic valve bypass (apicoaortic conduit) surgery. J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 2010;26(1):148-60. PMID: 21724415.
  10. Lehr EJ, Zimrin D, Vesely M, Odonkor P, Griffith B, Bonatti J. Axillary-coronary sequential vein graft for total endoscopic triple coronary artery bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90(5):e79-81. PMID: 20971229.
  11. Kon ZN, Lehr E, Odonkor P, Fitzpatrick M, Zimrin D, Griffith B, Bonatti J. Is an intraaortic balloon pump a contraindication to robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass? Heart Surg Forum. 2010;13(6):E399-401. PMID: 21169153.
  12. Lehr EJ, Odonkor P, Reyes P, Bonatti J. Minimized extracorporeal circulation for the robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting hybrid procedure. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26(7):e286-7. PMID: 20847981.
  13. Deshpande SP, Lehr E, Odonkor P, Bonatti JO, Kalangie M, Zimrin DA, Grigore AM. Anesthetic management of robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery (TECAB). J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 2012;27(3):586-99. PMID: 23672862.
  14. Odonkor PN, Grigore AM. Patients with ischemic heart disease. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97(6):1033-50. PMID: 24182718.
  15. Odonkor PN, Stansbury L, Garcia JP, Rock P, Deshpande SP, Grigore AM. Perioperative management of adult surgical patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27(2):329-44. PMID: 23276594.
  16. Hollis AL, Heil EL, Nicolau DP, Odonkor P, Dowling TC, Thom KA. Validation of a dosing strategy for cefazolin for surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2015;16(6):829-32. PMID: 26291478.
  17. Banayan JM, Roberts JD, Chaney MA, Odonkor PN, Hosseinian L, Torregrossa G. CASE 7-2016 Choice of Percutaneous Mechanical Assistance During Cardiopulmonary Instability: Heart, Lungs, or Both? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016;30(4):1104 - 1171. PMID: 26755437.
  18. Mazzeffi M, Lund L, Wallace K, Herrera AV, Tanaka K, Odonkor P, Strauss E, Rock P, Fiskum G. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on platelet mitochondrial respiration and correlation with aggregation and bleeding: a pilot study. Perfusion. 2016;31(6):508 - 515. PMID: 26916901.
  19. Mazzeffi M, Stafford P, Wallace K, Bernstein W, Deshpande S, Odonkor P, Grewal A, Strauss E, Stubbs L, Gammie J, Rock P. Intra-abdominal hypertension and postoperative kidney dysfunction in cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016;30(6):1571-1577. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2016.05.028. Epub 2016 May 19. PMID: 27590464.
  20. Strauss E, Taylor B, Mazzeffi M, Tanaka K, Odonkor P. The Auscultation of a Carbon Dioxide Embolization Event during Endoscopic Vein Harvest. Case Rep Anesthesiol. 2016;doi: 10.1155/2016/6947679. Epub 2016 May 31. PMID: 27340571.
  21. Odonkor P, Srinivas A, Strauss E, Williams B, Mazzeffi M, Tanaka KA. Perioperative Coagulation Management of a Hemophilia A Patient During Cardiac Surgery. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2017;21(4):312-320. doi: 10.1177/1089253217702747. Epub 2017 Apr 7. PMID: 28388863.
  22. Williams B, Wehman B, Mazzeffi M, Odonkor P, Harris RL, Kon Z, Tanaka K. Acute Intracardiac Thrombosis and Pulmonary Thromboembolism After Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases. Anesth Analg. 2018;126(2):425-434. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002259. PMID: 28682954.
  23. Deshpande SP, Chow JH, Odonkor P, Griffith B, Carr SR. Misadventures of a Pigtail: Case Report of Accidental Insertion of a Chest Tube into the Left Atrium During Interventional Radiology-Guided Placement. A&A Pract. 2018;11(10):273-275. doi: 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000807. PMID: 29894345.
  24. Odonkor P, Deshpande S, Malinow A. An Impacted Epidural Catheter. Anesthesiology. 2019;131(3):664. PMID: 31008765.
  25. Brown JM, Hajjar-Nejad MJ, Dominique G, Gillespie M, Siddiqui I, Romaine H, Odonkor P, Dawood M, Gammie JS. A Failed Cardiac Surgery Program in an Underserved Minority Population County Reimagined: The Power of Partnership. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9(23):e018230. PMID: 33213254.
  26. DiChiacchio L, Singh AK, Lewis B, Zhang T, Hardy N, Pasrija C, Morales D, Odonkor P, Strauss E, Williams B, Deatrick KB, Kaczorowski DJ, Ayares D, Griffith BP, Bartlett ST, Mohiuddin MM. Early experience with preclinical peri-operative cardiac xenograft dysfunction in a single program. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020;109(5):1357-1361. PMID: 31589847.
  27. Goerlich CE, Kaczorowski D, Singh A, Abdullah M, Lewis B, Zhang T, Tatarov I, Sentz F, Hershfeld A, Odonkor P, Williams B, Strauss E, Ayares D, Griffith B, Mohiuddin M. Human Thrombomodulin Transgene Expression Prevents Intracardiac Thrombus in Life Supporting Pig-to-Baboon Cardiac Xenotransplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2020;39(4):S145.
  28. Goerlich C, Singh a, Kaczorowski D, Abdullah M, Lewis B, Tatarov I, Hershfeld A, Zhang T, Strauss E, Odonkor P, Williams B, Ayares D, Griffith B, Mohiuddin M. Lack of Human Thrombomodulin Gene Expression in Life Supporting Pig-to-Baboon Cardiac Xenotransplantation Models Accelerate Antibody Mediated Rejection. Transplantation. 2020;104(S3):S635.
  29. Goerlich C, Singh A, Kaczorowski D, Abdullah M, Lewis B, Tatarov I, Hershfeld A, Zhang T, Strauss E, Odonkor P, Williams B, Ayares D, Griffith B, Mohiuddin M. The Use of Minimally Ischemic Cardiac Preservation Techniques to Overcome Perioperative Cardiac Xenograft Dysfunction (PCDX) in Life-Supporting Cardiac Xenotransplantation Model. Transplantation. 2020;104(S3):S636.
  30. Grewal A, Odonkor P, Ghoreishi M, Deshpande SP. Anesthetic Considerations in Endovascular Repair of the Ascending Aorta. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. S1053-2021;0770(21):00348-7. PMID: 34059437.
  31. Goerlich CE, Griffith B, Singh AK, Abdullah M, Singireddy S, Kolesnik I, Lewis B, Sentz F, Tatarov I, Hershfeld A, Zhang T, Strauss E, Odonkor P, Williams B, Tabatabai A, Bhutta A, Ayares D, Kaczorowski DJ, Mohiuddin MM. Blood Cardioplegia Induction, Perfusion Storage and Graft Dysfunction in Cardiac Xenotransplantation. Front Immunol. 2021;12: 667093. PMID: 34177906.
  32. Shah A, Goerlich CE, Pasrijah C, Hirsch J, Fisher S, Odonkor P, Strauss E, Ayares D, Mohiuddin M, Griffith BP. Anatomical Differences Between Human and Pig Hearts and Their Relevance for Cardiac Xenotransplantation Surgical Technique. JACC Case Rep. 2022;4(16):1049-1052. PMID: 36062051.
  33. Smith Bergbower EA, Odonkor PN. Con: Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Should not be used in Infective Endocarditis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022;36(8):2815-2818. PMID: 35501262.
  34. Odonkor P, Strauss E, Williams B. Ethical considerations during a pioneering surgical procedure: porcine cardiac xenotransplantation. Br J Hosp Med. 2022;83(6):1-7. PMID: 35787171.
  35. Strauss ER, Odonkor PN, Williams B. Porcine Orthotopic Cardiac Xenotransplantation: The Role and Perspective of Anesthesiologists. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022;36(8):2847-2850. PMID: 35537973.
  36. Mohiuddin MM, Goerlich CE, Singh AK, Zhang T, Odonkor P. Progressive Genetic Modifications of Porcine Cardiac Xenografts Extend Survival to 9 Months. Xenotransplantation. 2022;29(3):e12744. PMID: 35357044.
  37. Silverman H, Odonkor P. Reevaluating the Ethical Issues in Porcine-to-Human Heart Xenotransplantation. Hastings Center Report. 2022;52(5):32-42. PMID: 36226875.
  38. Strauss ER, Odonkor PN, Williams B, Choi S, Mueller J, Taylor B, Shah A, Goerlich CE, Mohiuddin MM, Griffith BP. Intraoperative Management of an Orthotopic Porcine-to-Human Cardiac Xenotransplant. Ann Thorac Surg. 2023; 115(3):784-786.   PMID: 36621667.

Additional Publication Citations

Book Articles/Chapters
Odonkor P, Passannante AN, Rock P. When should pulmonary function tests be performed preoperatively?. Fleischer L, eds. Evidence-Based Practice of Anesthesiology. 3rd ed. Elsevier: Chapter 14. 2013

Odonkor P, Mondal S. Anesthesia considerations in global cardiac surgery capacity development in emerging countries. In: Kpodonu, J, eds. Global Cardiac Surgery Capacity Development in Low and Middle Income Countries. Cham. Springer: 257-277. 2021

Herr D, Odonkor P. Taking the First Breath: ICU Care of the Lung Transplant Patient. Barac YD, Silvestry SC, Daneshmand MA, Goldstein DJ, eds. In Textbook of Transplantation and Mechanical Support for End-Stage Heart and Lung Disease. Wiley Blackwell: 2023

Research Interests


Research Team Member in a multicenter clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of Palonosetron in the treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting. This trial was sponsored by Helsinn Healthcare SA (Helsinn Healthcare SA Palo-04-06/7)


Research Team Member in a Multicenter, Parallel Group, Comparative, Phase IIIa Trial to Compare the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Org 25969 in Elderly Subjects. I administered the trial medication and took measurements of the effect of the trial drug. This trial was sponsored by Organaon Pharmaceuticals


Research Team Member in Edwards Lifesciences Partner I and II Trial for Transcutaneous Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) at the University of Maryland Medical Center


Research Team Member in University of Maryland participation in COAPT clinical trial for Mitral Regurgitation and commercial use of Mitra Clip procedure in management of degenerative mitral regurgitation


Research Team Member in University of Maryland Program in Cardiac Xenotransplantation. My role has been in the perioperative anesthetic management of baboons undergoing cardiac xenotransplantation


Research Team Member in Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement with the Medtronic TMVR System in Patients with severe symptomatic Mitral Regurgitation - APOLLO Trial (HP-00077255)


Principle Investigator on approved IRB protocol for study "Effect of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution on Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin Levels: an Acute Kidney Injury Biomarker (HP-00099231)" 


Research Team member in multicenter trial "Minimizing ICU Neurological Dysfunction with Dexmedetomidine-induced Sleep (MINDDS II)". Site enrollment and IRB approval pending

  • Cardiac Xenotransplantation
  • Improvement in peri-operative management of major cardiovascular surgical procedures and in patients with major comorbidities
  • Improvement in peri-operative Coagulation management during cardiac surgery
  • Potential effects of autologous normovolemic hemodilution on cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury

Clinical Specialty Details

Proficiency in Cardiothoracic and major Vascular Anesthesiology:
Anesthesia for Heart and Lung Transplantation
Anesthesia for Placement of Ventricular Assist Devices
Anesthesia for Minimally Invasive Mitral and Aortic Valve Surgery, (including Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and Mitraclip placement)
Anesthesia for Placement of Apico-Aortic Conduit (Aortic Valve Bypass Surgery)
Anesthesia for Endoscopic Cardiac Surgery using Robotics
Anesthesia for Major Vascular Surgery, (Ascending and descending aorta, and aortic arch surgery)
Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)
Placement of Coronary Sinus Catheters Under TEE Guidance,
Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgical Procedures, (including Placement of Thoracic Epidural Catheters and their Management, placement and management of double lumen endotracheal tubes and other lung isolation techniques)
Anesthetic management for initiation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) and anesthetic management of patients on ECMO having surgical procedures

Proficiency in Adult Multispecialty Anesthesiology:
Orthopedic Surgery
Oral and maxillofacial Surgery
Ear Nose and Throat Surgery
General Surgery
Obstetrics and Gynecological Surgery
Genitourinary Surgery
Surgical and interventional procedures requiring Non-operating room anesthetic management


Awards and Affiliations


Robert Dripps Memorial Award for Outstanding Resident in Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, UMSOM


Baltimore Top Doctor

Grants and Contracts

Active Grants


(PI, No Salary Support; PI - Patrick Odonkor)

Effect of a Low-volume Fluid Replacement Strategy during Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution in Cardiac Surgery on the Incidence of Cardiac Surgery-associated Acute Kidney Injury

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine Seed Grant

Award Total: $16,566.00

Total Direct Cost: $16,566.00

Community Service



Department of Anesthesiology, UMSOM

Participation in mentorship program of the Department of Anesthesiology. My role has been to mentor one anesthesiology resident every year.


University of Maryland School of Medicine

Administration of individual simulated mock oral board examinations for graduates of Anesthesiology residency program and other junior faculty of Department of Anesthesiology preparing for oral board examinations

2019, 2021

Presentation on Anesthesiology to High School Students

University of Maryland Medical Center

Edmondson Westside High School Introduction to Careers in Health Care


Mentor to Deborah Brooks, Assistant Professor, Dept of Psychiatry

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Serve as mentor for junior faculty to guide their academic progress towards promotion.


Mentor to Julie Hurvitz, Assistant Professor, Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology

University of Maryland School of Medicine

Serve as mentor for junior faculty to guide their academic progress towards promotion. 

Professional Activity

2000    Member, American Society of Anesthesiologists
2000    Member, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists
2015    Junior Editor, MOCA Minute Committee of the American Board of Anesthesiology
2015    Oral Board Examiner, American Board of Anesthesiology