Microbiology and Immunology
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Education and Training
1974 B.S. University of Nebraska Medical Technology
1980 Ph.D. Colorado State University Microbiology/Viral Immunology
Ph.D. Thesis - Vaccinia Virus-induced Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity in Sheep Blood and Lymph
Post Graduate Education and Training
1980-1981 Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
1981-1983 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Microbiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore
1983-1986 Research Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore
1986-1992 Principal Investigator (GS-13 and GS-14), Virology Division, USAMRIID
1992-2007 Chief, Viral Pathogenesis & Immunology Branch Virology Division, USAMRIID (GS-15 since 1999, equivalent to Professorial rank in the Microbiology series of government scientists) Within this designation, served also for periods in several other capacities including Acting Chief for Virology Division, Product Development Team Leader (Marburg virus vaccines); Working Group Leader (Filovirus vaccines).
2007- 2011 Paid Part-time Positions held simultaneously with UMB academic appointment (after voluntary early retirement from government service)
1. Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
2. Consultant in Virology Research and Biodefense
3. Teacher, Eighth Grade Science, Harford Friends School, Street, MD
2007-present Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine
Dr. Alan Schmaljohn is known principally as a virologist, with breadth of knowledge and expertise in vaccine discovery, immune responses, and antibody-based therapies for hazardous and emerging arboviruses and viral zoonoses. Currently a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Dr. Schmaljohn retired in 2007 from a 21-year civilian career with the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Frederick, MD. There, he served principally as leader of research and development teams, much of it in the capacity of Chief, Viral Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch. Before USAMRIID, Dr. Schmaljohn had been an Assistant Professor at the University of Maryland, this after postdoctoral positions at UMB and Johns Hopkins. In graduate school, he had transformed his undergraduate degree in Medical Technology (from the University of Nebraska) into a passion for infectious diseases, which flourished at Colorado State University (CSU) in a scientific milieu that included the veterinary school and the nearby arbovirology branch of the CDC. Dr. Schmaljohn received his PhD in Microbiology from CSU in 1981. His laboratory interests and published works have spanned several viral genera (filoviruses, orthopoxviruses, alphaviruses, hantaviruses, bunyaviruses, arenaviruses); immunologic niches (cytotoxic T lymphocytes, humoral immunity including monoclonal antibodies, peptides, anti-idiotypes, dendritic cells); virologic topics (isolation and characterization of new viruses, receptors, antibody escape mutants, epitope mapping, reassortants, envelope structure/function, pathogenesis); and vaccine strategies (alphavirus replicons, DNA vaccines, adenovirus, baculovirus recombinants, vaccinia virus recombinants, classical live or killed vaccines, virus-like particles). Seminal scientific contributions have included a candidate vaccine for Marburg virus, isolation of an American hantavirus now called Sin Nombre virus, and establishment of the importance of non-neutralizing antibodies in resistance to viral infections. Schmaljohn is an inventor on several patents, including new vaccines or treatments for poxviruses, Marburg, and Ebola viruses. After a period of translational research at UMB with an Ebola vaccine that evolved from his prior work, Dr. Schmaljohn has turned more recently to a part-time role that involves teaching, writing, advising, and service—while resigning from personally directed laboratory research.
Schmaljohn, Alan, and George K. Lewis. 2016. “Cell-Targeting Antibodies in Immunity to Ebola.” Pathogens and Disease 74 (4): ftw021. doi:10.1093/femspd/ftw021.
Schmaljohn A.L. (2013) Protective Antiviral Antibodies that Lack Neutralizing Activity: Precedents and Evolution of Concepts. Curr HIV Res. 2013 Jul 1;11(5):345–53.
Hevey M, Negley D, Pushko P, Smith J, Schmaljohn A. Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates. Virology 1998;251:28-37.
Schmaljohn AL, Li D, Negley DL, Bressler DS, Turell MJ, Korch GW, Ascher MS, Schmaljohn CS. Isolation and initial characterization of a newfound hantavirus from California. Virology 1995;206:963-972.
Schmaljohn AL, Johnson ED, Dalrymple JM, Cole GA. Non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can prevent lethal alphavirus encephalitis. Nature 1982;297:70-72.
1. Schmaljohn A, Lewis GK. Cell-Targeting Antibodies in Immunity to Ebola. Pathogens and Disease. 2016 Mar 22;ftw021. (doi: 10.1093/femspd/ftw021 Advance Access Publication)
2. Schmaljohn AL. Protective Antiviral Antibodies that Lack Neutralizing Activity: Precedents and Evolution of Concepts. Current HIV Research. 2013 Jul 1;11(5):345–53.
3. Whitehouse CA, Schmaljohn AL, Dembek ZF. Medical aspects of biological warfare: Chapter 25, Emerging infectious diseases and future threats. Washington, DC Falls Church, Va. Fort Sam Houston, Tex.: Borden Institute Office of the Surgeon General United States Army Medical Dept. Center and School; 2007. (Textbooks of military medicine).
4. Mohamadzadeh M, Chen L, Schmaljohn AL. How Ebola and Marburg viruses battle the immune system. Nature reviews. 2007;7(7):556–67.
5. Lofts LL, Ibrahim MS, Negley DL, Hevey MC, Schmaljohn AL. Genomic differences between guinea pig lethal and nonlethal Marburg virus variants. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S305–12.
6. Wang D, Schmaljohn AL, Raja NU, Trubey CM, Juompan LY, Luo M, et al. De novo syntheses of Marburg virus antigens from adenovirus vectors induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. Vaccine. 2006;24(15):2975–86.
7. Mohamadzadeh M, Coberley SS, Olinger GG, Kalina WV, Ruthel G, Fuller CL, et al. Activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 on human neutrophils by marburg and ebola viruses. J Virol. 2006;80(14):7235–44.
8. Mohamadzadeh M, Chen L, Olinger GG, Pratt WD, Schmaljohn AL. Filoviruses and the balance of innate, adaptive, and inflammatory responses. Viral Immunol. 2006;19(4):602–12.
9. Lee JS, Groebner JL, Hadjipanayis AG, Negley DL, Schmaljohn AL, Welkos SL, et al. Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice. Vaccine. 2006;24(47-48):6886–92.
10. Swenson DL, Warfield KL, Negley DL, Schmaljohn A, Aman MJ, Bavari S. Virus-like particles exhibit potential as a pan-filovirus vaccine for both Ebola and Marburg viral infections. Vaccine. 2005;23(23):3033–42.
11. Burnett JC, Henchal EA, Schmaljohn AL, Bavari S. The evolving field of biodefence: therapeutic developments and diagnostics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005;4(4):281–97.
12. Warfield KL, Swenson DL, Negley DL, Schmaljohn AL, Aman MJ, Bavari S. Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection. Vaccine. 2004;22(25-26):3495–502.
13. Swenson DL, Warfield KL, Kuehl K, Larsen T, Hevey MC, Schmaljohn A, et al. Generation of Marburg virus-like particles by co-expression of glycoprotein and matrix protein(1). FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;40(1):27–31.
14. Schmaljohn C, Nabel GJ, McCormick JJ, Schmaljohn A. Vaccines for Hantaviruses, Lassa Virus, and Filoviruses. In: Levine MM, editor. New generation vaccines. New York London: Marcel Dekker ; Taylor & Francis; 2004. p. 679–94.
15. Schmaljohn A, Hevey M. Medical Countermeasures for Filoviruses and Other Viral Agents. In: Lindler LE, Lebeda FJ, Korch G, editors. Biological weapons defense : infectious disease counterbioterrorism [Internet]. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004. p. 239–53. Available from: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0415/2004004125.html
16. Lindler LE, Lebeda FJ, Korch G. Biological weapons defense : infectious disease counterbioterrorism [Internet]. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press; 2004. p. Available from: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0415/2004004125.html
17. Levine MM. New generation vaccines. Vol. 3rd ed, rev. and expand. New York London: Marcel Dekker ; Taylor & Francis; 2004. xiii, 1117.
18. Hooper JW, Thompson E, Wilhelmsen C, Zimmerman M, Ichou MA, Steffen SE, et al. Smallpox DNA vaccine protects nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox. J Virol. 2004;78(9):4433–43.
19. Warfield KL, Bosio CM, Welcher BC, Deal EM, Mohamadzadeh M, Schmaljohn A, et al. Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(26):15889–94.
20. Sofi Ibrahim M, Kulesh DA, Saleh SS, Damon IK, Esposito JJ, Schmaljohn AL, et al. Real-time PCR assay to detect smallpox virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(8):3835–9.
21. Riemenschneider J, Garrison A, Geisbert J, Jahrling P, Hevey M, Negley D, et al. Comparison of individual and combination DNA vaccines for B. anthracis, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Vaccine. 2003;21(25-26):4071–80.
22. Hevey M, Negley D, Schmaljohn A. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Marburg virus (strain Musoke) glycoprotein and identification of two protective epitopes. Virology. 2003;314(1):350–7.
23. Bosio CM, Aman MJ, Grogan C, Hogan R, Ruthel G, Negley D, et al. Ebola and Marburg viruses replicate in monocyte-derived dendritic cells without inducing the production of cytokines and full maturation. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(11):1630–8.
24. Aman MJ, Bosio CM, Panchal RG, Burnett JC, Schmaljohn A, Bavari S. Molecular mechanisms of filovirus cellular trafficking. Microbes Infect. 2003;5(7):639–49.
25. Schmaljohn A. Vaccines for Emerging Zoonoses: Marburg Virus Paradigm. In: Burroughs T, Knobler S, Lederberg J, editors. The emergence of zoonotic diseases : understanding the impact on animal and human health : workshop summary [Internet]. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2002. p. 73–8. Available from: http://nap.edu/books/0309083273/html/73.html
26. Burroughs T, Knobler S, Lederberg J, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Forum on Emerging Infections. The emergence of zoonotic diseases : understanding the impact on animal and human health : workshop summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2002. xviii, 157 p.
27. Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters CJ, Schmaljohn AL, Hughes JM, Jahrling PB, et al. Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management. Jama. 2002;287(18):2391–405.
28. Bavari S, Bosio CM, Wiegand E, Ruthel G, Will AB, Geisbert TW, et al. Lipid raft microdomains: a gateway for compartmentalized trafficking of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Exp Med. 2002;195(5):593–602.
29. Hevey M, Negley D, VanderZanden L, Tammariello RF, Geisbert J, Schmaljohn C, et al. Marburg virus vaccines: comparing classical and new approaches. Vaccine. 2001;20(3-4):586–93.
30. Chan SY, Empig CJ, Welte FJ, Speck RF, Schmaljohn A, Kreisberg JF, et al. Folate receptor-alpha is a cofactor for cellular entry by Marburg and Ebola viruses. Cell. 2001;106(1):117–26.
31. Wilson JA, Hevey M, Bakken R, Guest S, Bray M, Schmaljohn AL, et al. Epitopes involved in antibody-mediated protection from Ebola virus. Science. 2000;287(5458):1664–6.
32. Pushko P, Bray M, Ludwig GV, Parker M, Schmaljohn A, Sanchez A, et al. Recombinant RNA replicons derived from attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus protect guinea pigs and mice from Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus. Vaccine. 2000;19(1):142–53.
33. McClain DJ, Summers PL, Harrison SA, Schmaljohn AL, Schmaljohn CS. Clinical evaluation of a vaccinia-vectored Hantaan virus vaccine. J Med Virol. 2000;60(1):77–85.
34. Hooper JW, Custer DM, Schmaljohn CS, Schmaljohn AL. DNA vaccination with vaccinia virus L1R and A33R genes protects mice against a lethal poxvirus challenge. Virology. 2000;266(2):329–39.
35. Subklewe M, Chahroudi A, Schmaljohn A, Kurilla MG, Bhardwaj N, Steinman RM. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses using dendritic cells pulsed with EBNA-3A peptides or UV-inactivated, recombinant EBNA-3A vaccinia virus. Blood. 1999;94(4):1372–81.
36. Vanderzanden L, Bray M, Fuller D, Roberts T, Custer D, Spik K, et al. DNA vaccines expressing either the GP or NP genes of Ebola virus protect mice from lethal challenge. Virology. 1998;246(1):134–44.
37. Pratt WD, Gibbs P, Pitt ML, Schmaljohn AL. Use of telemetry to assess vaccine-induced protection against parenteral and aerosol infections of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in non-human primates. Vaccine. 1998;16(9-10):1056–64.
38. Nardin A, Sutherland WM, Hevey M, Schmaljohn A, Taylor RP. Quantitative studies of heteropolymer-mediated binding of inactivated Marburg virus to the complement receptor on primate erythrocytes. J Immunol Methods. 1998;211(1-2):21–31.
39. McClain DJ, Pittman PR, Ramsburg HH, Nelson GO, Rossi CA, Mangiafico JA, et al. Immunologic interference from sequential administration of live attenuated alphavirus vaccines. J Infect Dis. 1998;177(3):634–41.
40. Hevey M, Negley D, Pushko P, Smith J, Schmaljohn A. Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates. Virology. 1998;251(1):28–37.
41. Hevey M, Negley D, Geisbert J, Jahrling P, Schmaljohn A. Antigenicity and vaccine potential of Marburg virus glycoprotein expressed by baculovirus recombinants. Virology. 1997;239(1):206–16.
42. Schmaljohn AL, Li D, Negley DL, Bressler DS, Turell MJ, Korch GW, et al. Isolation and initial characterization of a newfound hantavirus from California. Virology. 1995;206(2):963–72.
43. Li D, Schmaljohn AL, Anderson K, Schmaljohn CS. Complete nucleotide sequences of the M and S segments of two hantavirus isolates from California: evidence for reassortment in nature among viruses related to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology. 1995;206(2):973–83.
44. Chu YK, Jennings G, Schmaljohn A, Elgh F, Hjelle B, Lee HW, et al. Cross-neutralization of hantaviruses with immune sera from experimentally infected animals and from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome patients. J Infect Dis. 1995;172(6):1581–4.
45. Strauss JH, Wang KS, Schmaljohn AL, Kuhn RJ, Strauss EG. Host-cell receptors for Sindbis virus. Arch Virol Suppl. 1994;9:473–84.
46. London SD, Schmaljohn AL, Dalrymple JM, Rice CM. Infectious enveloped RNA virus antigenic chimeras. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(1):207–11.
47. Wang KS, Schmaljohn AL, Kuhn RJ, Strauss JH. Antiidiotypic antibodies as probes for the Sindbis virus receptor. Virology. 1991;181(2):694–702.
48. Strauss EG, Stec DS, Schmaljohn AL, Strauss JH. Identification of antigenically important domains in the glycoproteins of Sindbis virus by analysis of antibody escape variants. J Virol. 1991;65(9):4654–64.
49. Schmaljohn CS, Chu YK, Schmaljohn AL, Dalrymple JM. Antigenic subunits of Hantaan virus expressed by baculovirus and vaccinia virus recombinants. J Virol. 1990;64(7):3162–70.
50. Schmaljohn CS, Parker MD, Ennis WH, Dalrymple JM, Collett MS, Suzich JA, et al. Baculovirus expression of the M genome segment of Rift Valley fever virus and examination of antigenic and immunogenic properties of the expressed proteins. Virology. 1989;170(1):184–92.
51. Arikawa J, Schmaljohn AL, Dalrymple JM, Schmaljohn CS. Characterization of Hantaan virus envelope glycoprotein antigenic determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 3):615–24.
52. Schmaljohn CS, Sugiyama K, Schmaljohn AL, Bishop DH. Baculovirus expression of the small genome segment of Hantaan virus and potential use of the expressed nucleocapsid protein as a diagnostic antigen. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 4):777–86.
53. Schmaljohn CS, Schmaljohn AL, Dalrymple JM. Hantaan virus M RNA: coding strategy, nucleotide sequence, and gene order. Virology. 1987;157(1):31–9.
54. Davis NL, Pence DF, Meyer WJ, Schmaljohn AL, Johnston RE. Alternative forms of a strain-specific neutralizing antigenic site on the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein. Virology. 1987;161(1):101–8.
55. Stec DS, Waddell A, Schmaljohn CS, Cole GA, Schmaljohn AL. Antibody-selected variation and reversion in Sindbis virus neutralization epitopes. J Virol. 1986;57(3):715–20.
56. Schmaljohn AL, Kokubun KM, Cole GA. Protective monoclonal antibodies define maturational and pH-dependent antigenic changes in Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein. Virology. 1983;130(1):144–54.
57. Schmaljohn AL, Johnson ED, Dalrymple JM, Cole GA. Non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can prevent lethal alphavirus encephalitis. Nature. 1982;297(5861):70–2.