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Paul A. Lees, PhD

Academic Title:

Associate Professor

Primary Appointment:


Additional Title:

Scientific Director: Vaccines, Bioconjugation, Protein purification at Fina BioSolutions LLC


Institute for Global Health

Phone (Primary):

(301) 633-0464

Education and Training

Harvey Mudd College, B.S., Chemistry, 1976

The Johns Hopkins University, Ph.D., Biophysics, 1984
“Effects of Brevin and Vitamin D Binding Protein on Actin Assembly and Disassembly”


Dr. Lees is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland Baltimore and founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Fina Biosolutions LLC (Fina Bio). He is a leader in the field of conjugate vaccine chemistry. 

Fina Biosolutions, LLC was founded in 2006 by Dr. Lees with an initial focus on helping emerging market vaccine manufacturers learn to make affordable conjugate vaccines. The company has since grown to offer a variety of bioconjugation and protein services. Dr. Lees leads the conjugate vaccine, bioconjugation, and protein purification services at Fina Bio. He specialties include:

  • Developing protein purification/downstream processing protocols for laboratory-scale and process scale-up.
  • Creating essential reagents for vaccines, immunogens, and diagnostics.
  • Design and synthesis of conjugate vaccines, linking proteins to antigens such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, peptides, and haptens.

Research/Clinical Keywords

Conjugate vaccines, conjugation chemistry, protein purification, bioconjugation.

Highlighted Publications

Simon R, Curtis B, Deumic V, Nicki J, Tennant SM, Pasetti MF, Lees A, Wills PW, Chacon M, Levine MM. A scalable method for biochemical purification of Salmonella flagellin. Protein Expr Purif. 2014 Oct;102:1-7.

Cross AS, Karreman HJ, Zhang L, Rosenberg Z, Opal SM, Lees A. Immunization of cows with novel core glycolipid vaccine induces anti-endotoxin antibodies in bovine colostrum. Vaccine. 2014 Oct;32(46):6107-14.

Chen Q, Dintaman J, Lees A, Sen G, Schwartz D. Shirtliff ME, Park S, Lee JC, Mond JJ, Snapper CM. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine. Infection and Immunity. 2013 Jul;81(7):2554–2561.

Wing JB, Smart L, Borrow R, Findlow J, Findlow H, Lees A, Read RC, Heath AW. Correlation of group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine response with B- and T-lymphocyte activity. PLoS ONE. 2012 7(2):e31160.

Arjunaraja S, Massari P, Wetzler LM, Lees A, Colino J, Snapper CM. (2012). The nature of an in vivo anti-capsular polysaccharide response is markedly influenced by the composition and/or architecture of the bacterial subcapsular domain. Journal of Immunology. 2012 188(2):569–577. 

Additional Publication Citations

Lees, A, Puvanesarajah V, Frasch CE. Conjugation Chemistry. Pps 163-174 In: Pneumococcal Vaccines: The Impact of Conjugate Vaccines. Eds GR Siber, KP Klugman, PH Makela. ASM Press, Washington DC. 2008.

Lees, A, Sen G, Lopez-Acosta A. Versatile and efficient synthesis of protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines using aminooxy reagents and oxime chemistry. Vaccine. 2006. 24(6):716-729.

Shafer DE, Toll B, Schuman RF, Nelson BL, Mond JJ, Lees A. Activation of soluble polysaccharides with CDAP for use in protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and immunological reagents. II. Selective crosslinking of proteins to CDAP-activated polysaccharides. Vaccine. 2000. 18;18(13):1273-81.

Shafer DE, Inman JK, Lees A. Reaction of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) with maleimide and alpha-haloacyl groups: anomalous elution of TCEP by gel filtration. Anal. Biochem. 2000. 282:161.

Mond JJ, Lees A, Snapper CM. T cell-independent antigens type 2. Annual Review of Immunol. 1995. 13:655.

Lees A, Nelson BL, Mond JJ. Activation of soluble polysaccharides with 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate for use in protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and immunological reagents. Vaccine. 1996.14:190-8.

Awards and Affiliations

Power List 2016
The Top 100 most influential people in the world of drug development and manufacture.


Published Patent Applications

WO2015/117093 A1: Expression and purification of CRM197 and related protein, 2015.

  • Inventors: Natalia Oganesyan and Andrew Lees

WO2013/188539 A3: Differential functionalization of polymers with aminooxy reagents, 2014.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

WO2011/053971 A2: Method for enhancing the sensitivity of antibody based assays, 2011.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

EP2501403 A4: (Poly)-glycerolphosphate-based anti-gram positive bacterial vaccine, 2010.

  • Inventors: Clifford M Snapper, Andrew Lees, James J Mond, and David Schwartz

0169941 A1: Use of amino-oxy functional groups in the preparation of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, 2005.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

US Patents Issued

9,044,517: Activation of polysaccharides via the cyanylating agent, 1-cyano-4-pyrrolidinopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CPPT), in the preparation of polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines, 2015.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

8647621: Method for producing protein-carbohydrate vaccines reduced in free carbohydrate, 2014.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

8,383,783: Simple method for simultaneous removal of multiple impurities from culture supernatants to ultralow levels, 2013.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees and Jayant Sakaram Joshi

7,777,017: Nucleic acids encoding opsonic monoclonal and chimeric antibodies specific for lipoteichoic acid of gram positive bacteria, 2010.

  • Inventors: Jeffrey R. Stinson, Richard F. Schuman, James Jacob Mond, Andrew Lees, and Gerald Walter Fischer

7,452,533: Antimicrobial polymer conjugate containing lysostaphin and polyethylene glycol, 2008.

  • Inventors: Scott M. Walsh, Anjali G. Shah, James J. Mond, Andrew Lees, and Joseph J. Drabick

7,250,494 B2: Opsonic monoclonal and chimeric antibodies specific for lipoteichoic acid of gram positive bacteria, 2007.

  • Inventors: Jeffrey R  Stinson, Richard F  Schuman, James J  Mond, Andrew  Lees, and Gerald Walter Fischer

7,101,562: Conjugate vaccines for the prevention of dental caries, 2006.

  • Inventors: Andrew Lees, Martin A. Taubman, and Daniel J. Smith

7,094,883: Monoclonal antibody which agglutinates E. coli having the CS4-CFA/I family protein, 2006.

  • Inventors: Frederick Cassels, Andrew Lees, and Richard Schuman

6,248,334 B1/6756041 B2: Process for preparing conjugate vaccines including free protein and the conjugate vaccines, immunogens, and immunogenic reagents produced by this process, 2001/2004, respectfully.

  • Inventors: Andrew Lees and James Mond

6,585,973: Method for preparing solid phase conjugated vaccines, 2003.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

6,432,679: Enhancement of B cell activation and immunoglobulin secretion by co-stimulation of receptors for antigen, 2002.

  • Inventors: James J. Mond and Andrew Lees

L6,309,646: Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and other immunological reagents prepared using homobifunctional and heterobifunctional vinylsulfones and processes for preparing the conjugates, 2001.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

6,299,881: Uronium salts for activating hydroxyls, carboxyls and polysaccharides, and conjugate vaccines, immunogens, and other useful immunological reagents produced using uronium salts, 2001.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

6,284,250: Simplified method for removing free protein during the preparation of protein-polysaccharide conjugates and vaccines using restricted access media, 2001.

  • Inventors: Andrew Lees and Douglas E. Shafer

6087328: Coupling of unmodified proteins to haloacyl or dihaloacyl derivatized polysaccharides for the preparation of protein-polysaccharide vaccines, 2000.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees

5585100/5955079 A: Dual immunogenic construct, 1996/1999, respectfully.

  • Inventors: James J. Mond and Andrew Lees

5651971, 5693326, 5,849,301: Producing immunogenic constructs using soluble carbohydrates activated via organic cyanylating reagents, 1997, 1997, and 1998, respectfully.

  • Inventor: Andrew Lees