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Erick O. Hernandez-Ochoa, MD, PhD

Academic Title:

Assistant Professor

Primary Appointment:

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Location:

108 N. Greene St, Baltimore, MD, 21201

Phone (Primary):

(410) 706-5787

Education and Training

1994-2000                  M.D.    General Medicine. School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico. Mexico.

1999-2000                 Internship (Surgery, Internal Medicine and Emergency Medicine) at the Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition, Dr. Salvador Zubirán, Mexico.

2001-2007                 Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences, Subject: Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico.

2004-2007                 Scholar Fellow, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA. Mentor: Dr. Martin F. Schneider.

2007-2010                 Post-doctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA. Mentor: Dr. Martin F. Schneider.

Biosketch

The study of the human body has been my fascination. Much of my undergraduate, graduate, and early postdoctoral research focused on peripheral nervous system physiology and biophysics. My research has included studying the mechanisms of voltage-gated calcium channel modulation mediated by G-protein coupled receptors. Voltage-gated calcium channels are critical mediators of depolarization-induced calcium influx into excitable cells, thereby playing pivotal roles in a wide array of physiological responses. In recent years my research has focused on skeletal muscle physiology and pathophysiology. I have continued to build on my previous training in electrophysiology and calcium imaging by using experimental paradigms that will allow me to address more clinically relevant questions regarding the regulation of excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling and excitation-transcription (e-t) coupling in skeletal muscle.

Research/Clinical Keywords

Excitability, calcium signals, voltage-gated ion channels, neurons, skeletal muscle cells. Calcium channel regulation, calcium dysregulation, pathophysiology of diabetes, skeletal muscle diseases.

Highlighted Publications

Hernández-Ochoa EO, Contreras M, Cseresnyés Z, Schneider MF. Ca2+ signal summation and NFATc1 nuclear translocation in sympathetic ganglion neurons during repetitive action potentials. Cell Calcium. 2007 Jun;41(6):559-71.

Hernández-Ochoa EO, Schneider MF. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca(2+) release in adult skeletal muscle fibres. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2012 Apr;108(3):98-118.

Hernández-Ochoa EO, Schachter TN, Schneider MF. Elevated nuclear Foxo1 suppresses excitability of skeletal muscle fibers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013 Sep 15;305(6):C643-53.

Hernández-Ochoa EO, Robison P, Contreras M, Shen T, Zhao Z, Schneider MF. Elevated extracellular glucose and uncontrolled type 1 diabetes enhance NFAT5 signaling and disrupt the transverse tubular network in mouse skeletal muscle. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Sep;237(9):1068-83.

Hernández-Ochoa EO, Pratt SJ, Lovering RM, Schneider MF. Critical Role of Intracellular RyR1 Calcium Release Channels in Skeletal Muscle Function and Disease. Front Physiol. 2016

Hernández-Ochoa, E. O. and M. F. Schneider. Voltage sensing mechanism in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling: coming of age or midlife crisis. Skelet Muscle. 2018 8(1): 22.

 

 

 

 

 

Additional Publication Citations

 

  1. Pratt, S.J.P., R. M. Lee, O. Hernández-Ochoa, E.C. Ory, K. N. Thompson, P.C. Bailey, T.J. Mathias, M.I. Vitolo, M.F. Schneider, J.P. Stains, C.W. Ward and S. S. Martin (2020) “Mechanoactivation of NOX2-generated ROS elicits persistent TRPM8 Ca2+ signals that are inhibited by oncogenic KRas” PNAS, 117(42):26008-26019.
  2. Zhao, Z., L. Cao, Hernández-Ochoa, M. F. Schneider and E. A. Reece (2019). "Disturbed intracellular calcium homeostasis in neural tube defects in diabetic embryopathy." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 514(3): 960-966.
  3. Banks, Q., S. J. P. Pratt, S. R. Iyer, R. M. Lovering, O. Hernández-Ochoa and M. F. Schneider (2018). "Optical Recording of Action Potential Initiation and Propagation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Fibers." Biophys J 115(11): 2127-2140.
  4. Au, D. T., Z. Ying, O. Hernández-Ochoa, W. E. Fondrie, B. Hampton, M. Migliorini, R. Galisteo, M. F. Schneider, A. Daugherty, D. L. Rateri, D. K. Strickland and S. C. Muratoglu (2018). "LRP1 (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1) Regulates Smooth Muscle Contractility by Modulating Ca(2+) Signaling and Expression of Cytoskeleton-Related Proteins." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 38(11): 2651-2664.
  5. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., Z. Melville, C. Vanegas, K. M. Varney, P. T. Wilder, W. Melzer, D. J. Weber and M. F. Schneider (2018). "Loss of S100A1 expression leads to Ca(2+) release potentiation in mutant mice with disrupted CaM and S100A1 binding to CaMBD2 of RyR1." Physiol Rep 6(15): e13822.
  6. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O. and M. F. Schneider (2018). "Voltage sensing mechanism in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling: coming of age or midlife crisis?" Skelet Muscle 8(1): 22.
  7. Pratt, S. J. P., O. Hernández-Ochoa, R. M. Lee, E. C. Ory, J. S. Lyons, H. C. Joca, A. Johnson, K. Thompson, P. Bailey, C. J. Lee, T. Mathias, M. I. Vitolo, M. Trudeau, J. P. Stains, C. W. Ward, M. F. Schneider and S. S. Martin (2018). "Real-time scratch assay reveals mechanisms of early calcium signaling in breast cancer cells in response to wounding." Oncotarget 9(38): 25008-25024.
  8. Robison, P., T. E. Sussan, H. Chen, S. Biswal, M. F. Schneider and O. Hernández-Ochoa (2017). "Impaired calcium signaling in muscle fibers from intercostal and foot skeletal muscle in a cigarette smoke-induced mouse model of COPD." Muscle Nerve 56(2): 282-291.
  9. Melville, Z., O. Hernández-Ochoa, S. J. P. Pratt, Y. Liu, A. D. Pierce, P. T. Wilder, K. A. Adipietro, D. H. Breysse, K. M. Varney, M. F. Schneider and D. J. Weber (2017). "The Activation of Protein Kinase A by the Calcium-Binding Protein S100A1 Is Independent of Cyclic AMP." Biochemistry 56(17): 2328-2337.
  10. Iyer, S. R., S. B. Shah, A. P. Valencia, M. F. Schneider, O. Hernández-Ochoa, J. P. Stains, S. S. Blemker and R. M. Lovering (2017). "Altered nuclear dynamics in MDX myofibers." J Appl Physiol (1985) 122(3): 470-481.
  11. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., P. Llanos and J. T. Lanner (2017). "The Underlying Mechanisms of Diabetic Myopathy." J Diabetes Res 2017: 7485738.
  12. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., Q. Banks and M. F. Schneider (2017). "Acute Elevated Glucose Promotes Abnormal Action Potential-Induced Ca(2+) Transients in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Fibers." J Diabetes Res 2017: 1509048.
  13. Iyer, S. R., A. P. Valencia, O. Hernández-Ochoa and R. M. Lovering (2016). "In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies." Methods Mol Biol 1460: 293-307.
  14. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., C. Vanegas, S. R. Iyer, R. M. Lovering and M. F. Schneider (2016). "Alternating bipolar field stimulation identifies muscle fibers with defective excitability but maintained local Ca(2+) signals and contraction." Skelet Muscle 6: 6.
  15. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O. and C. Vanegas (2015). "Diabetic Myopathy and Mechanisms of Disease." Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 4(5).
  16. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., S. J. P. Pratt, R. M. Lovering and M. F. Schneider (2015). "Critical Role of Intracellular RyR1 Calcium Release Channels in Skeletal Muscle Function and Disease." Front Physiol 6: 420.
  17. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., S. J. P. Pratt, K. P. Garcia-Pelagio, M. F. Schneider and R. M. Lovering (2015). "Disruption of action potential and calcium signaling properties in malformed myofibers from dystrophin-deficient mice." Physiol Rep 3(4).
  18. Robison, P., O. Hernández-Ochoa and M. F. Schneider (2014). "Atypical behavior of NFATc1 in cultured intercostal myofibers." Skelet Muscle 4(1): 1.
  19. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., R. O. Olojo, R. T. Rebbeck, A. F. Dulhunty and M. F. Schneider (2014). "β1a490-508, a 19-residue peptide from C-terminal tail of Cav1.1 β1a subunit, potentiates voltage-dependent calcium release in adult skeletal muscle fibers." Biophys J 106(3): 535-547.
  20. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., T. N. Schachter and M. F. Schneider (2013). "Elevated nuclear Foxo1 suppresses excitability of skeletal muscle fibers." AJP Cell Physiol 305(6): C643-653.
  21. Wu, F., W. Mi, O. Hernández-Ochoa, D. K. Burns, Y. Fu, H. F. Gray, A. F. Struyk, M. F. Schneider and S. C. Cannon (2012). "A calcium channel mutant mouse model of hypokalemic periodic paralysis." J Clin Invest 122(12): 4580-4591.
  22. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., P. Robison, M. Contreras, T. Shen, Z. Zhao and M. F. Schneider (2012). "Elevated extracellular glucose and uncontrolled type 1 diabetes enhance NFAT5 signaling and disrupt the transverse tubular network in mouse skeletal muscle." Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 237(9): 1068-1083.
  23. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O. and M. F. Schneider (2012). "Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca(2+) release in adult skeletal muscle fibres." Prog Biophys Mol Biol 108(3): 98-118.
  24. Liu, Y., O. Hernández-Ochoa, W. R. Randall and M. F. Schneider (2012). "NOX2-dependent ROS is required for HDAC5 nuclear efflux and contributes to HDAC4 nuclear efflux during intense repetitive activity of fast skeletal muscle fibers." AJP Cell Physiol 303(3): C334-347.
  25. Olojo, R. O., A. P. Ziman, O. Hernández-Ochoa, P. D. Allen, M. F. Schneider and C. W. Ward (2011). "Mice null for calsequestrin 1 exhibit deficits in functional performance and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling." PLoS One 6(12): e27036.
  26. Olojo, R. O., O. Hernández-Ochoa, N. Ikemoto and M. F. Schneider (2011). "Effects of conformational peptide probe DP4 on bidirectional signaling between DHPR and RyR1 calcium channels in voltage-clamped skeletal muscle fibers." Biophys J 100(10): 2367-2377.
  27. Yamaguchi, N., B. L. Prosser, F. Ghassemi, L. Xu, D. A. Pasek, J. P. Eu, O. Hernández-Ochoa, B. R. Cannon, P. T. Wilder, R. M. Lovering, D. Weber, W. Melzer, M. F. Schneider and G. Meissner (2011). "Modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle expressing ryanodine receptor impaired in regulation by calmodulin and S100A1." AJP Cell Physiol 300(5): C998-C1012.
  28. Robison, P., O. Hernández-Ochoa and M. F. Schneider (2011). "Adherent primary cultures of mouse intercostal muscle fibers for isolated fiber studies." JB Biotechnol 2011: 393740.
  29. Prosser, B. L., O. Hernández-Ochoa and M. F. Schneider (2011). "S100A1 and calmodulin regulation of ryanodine receptor in striated muscle." Cell Calcium 50(4): 323-331.
  30. Shen, T., Y. Liu, M. Contreras, O. Hernández-Ochoa, W. R. Randall and M. F. Schneider (2010). "DNA binding sites target nuclear NFATc1 to heterochromatin regions in adult skeletal muscle fibers." Histochem Cell Biol 134(4): 387-402.
  31. Prosser, B. L., O. Hernández-Ochoa, R. M. Lovering, Z. Andronache, D. B. Zimmer, W. Melzer and M. F. Schneider (2010). "S100A1 promotes action potential-initiated calcium release flux and force production in skeletal muscle." AJP Cell Physiol 299(5): C891-902.
  32. Prosser, B. L., O. Hernández-Ochoa, D. B. Zimmer and M. F. Schneider (2009). "Simultaneous recording of intramembrane charge movement components and calcium release in wild-type and S100A1-/- muscle fibres." J Physiol 587(Pt 18): 4543-4559.
  33. Prosser, B. L., O. Hernández-Ochoa, D. B. Zimmer and M. F. Schneider (2009). "The Qgamma component of intra-membrane charge movement is present in mammalian muscle fibres, but suppressed in the absence of S100A1." J Physiol 587(Pt 18): 4523-4541.
  34. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., B. L. Prosser, N. T. Wright, M. Contreras, D. J. Weber and M. F. Schneider (2009). "Augmentation of Cav1 channel current and action potential duration after uptake of S100A1 in sympathetic ganglion neurons." AJP Cell Physiol 297(4): C955-970.
  35. Prosser, B. L., N. T. Wright, O. Hernandez-Ochoa, K. M. Varney, Y. Liu, R. O. Olojo, D. B. Zimmer, D. J. Weber and M. F. Schneider (2008). "S100A1 binds to the calmodulin-binding site of ryanodine receptor and modulates skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling." J Biol Chem 283(8): 5046-5057.
  36. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., R. E. García-Ferreiro and D. E. García (2007). "G protein activation inhibits gating charge movement in rat sympathetic neurons." AJP Cell Physiol 292(6): C2226-2238.
  37. Hernández-Ochoa, E. O., M. Contreras, Z. Cseresnyés and M. F. Schneider (2007). "Ca2+ signal summation and NFATc1 nuclear translocation in sympathetic ganglion neurons during repetitive action potentials." Cell Calcium 41(6): 559-571.
  38. Brown, L. D., G. G. Rodney, Hernández-Ochoa, C. W. Ward and M. F. Schneider (2007). "Ca2+ sparks and T tubule reorganization in dedifferentiating adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers." AJP Cell Physiol 292(3): C1156-1166.
  39. García-Ferreiro, R. E., O. Hernández-Ochoa and D. E. García (2001). "Modulation of N-type Ca2+ channel current kinetics by PMA in rat sympathetic neurons." Pflugers Arch 442(6): 848-858.
  40. García, D. E., B. Li, R. E. García-Ferreiro, O. Hernández-Ochoa, K. Yan, N. Gautam, W. A. Catterall, K. Mackie and B. Hille (1998). "G-protein beta-subunit specificity in the fast membrane-delimited inhibition of Ca2+ channels." J Neurosci 18(22): 9163-9170.

Research Interests

Neuronal and muscular physiology. Calcium signals and voltage-gated ion channels in excitable cells. 

Alterations of voltage-gated ion channels function and calcium signaling in neurons and muscle.

Pathophysiology of Diabetes, Denervation and Skeletal Muscle diseases.   

  1. One of the major focuses of my research interest is in the function of the sympathetic nervous system. During my PhD studies and early during my postdoctoral career, I studied mechanisms of ion channel regulation mediated by neurotransmitters, calcium signaling, and the role of extracellular S100A1. I demonstrated that different neurotransmitters and hormones can control the activity of ion channels via the modulation of the voltage sensing apparatus. Our group also discovered that certain patterns of electrical activity control the activation of NFATc1, a transcription factor that regulates a myriad of neuronal functions. I also identified a novel mechanism of regulation of the sympathetic nervous system that innervates the heart when the S100A1 is added extracellularly. This form of regulation may occur during or after a heart attack and the accompanying ischemic damage. My scientific findings from this initial stage of my research career have been cited numerous times in peer-reviewed journals, as well as in book chapters.
  2. Improving our understanding of skeletal muscle functions constitutes a prerequisite for better treating skeletal muscle diseases. Over the years, myself and colleagues have developed a range of research strategies to allow a greatly improved understanding of muscle physiology and disease conditions.
  3. My current research and interest involve the application of my expertise in basic muscle research to obtain a better understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes. Diabetes affects millions of people in the U.S. alone. In uncontrolled diabetes, episodes of acute hyperglycemia often lead to the breakdown of muscle fibers resulting in the release of fiber contents into the bloodstream. This can cause acute kidney damage, and when untreated, can lead to death. My research, hopefully, will lead to significant new understandings of the dangerous effects of diabetes on muscle function.

Clinical Specialty Details

Medical Licensure

2000-present            Active, México City, México.

USMLE Board Certification

2019, USMLE STEP 1, pass, May.

2020, USMLE STEP 2 CK, pass, July.

ECFMG Certification

2020 OET, pass, October. 

 

 

Awards and Affiliations

Awards

2010   Member, National Researchers System (level 1), granted by The National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT-Mexico).

2015   Chair, Gordon Research Seminar, preceding Gordon Research Conference: Muscle Excitation/Contraction Coupling.

Affiliations

2001-present                        Member, Biophysical Society

2004-present                        Member, Latin American Biophysicists Society

2014-present                        Member, Society of General Physiology

Grants and Contracts

Ongoing Research Support

R37-AR055099                    Schneider MF (PI)                                        2/1/17 -1/31/22                    

NIH/NIAMS                                                                           $250,000 FY Direct costs

“Roles of voltage sensors, S100A1 and calmodulin in skeletal muscle Ca2+ signaling”

Role: Co-Investigator (95% effort)

 

5R35HL140034-03              Anderson, ME (PI)                                       1/22/18-12/31/24

NIH/NHLB                                                                             $599,998 FY Direct costs

CaMKII signaling in physiology, heart failure and arrhythmias

Role: Co-Investigator (10% effort)

 

Completed

R37-AR055099                    Schneider MF (PI)                                       7/1/12 – 1/31/17

NIAMS/NIH                                                                           $225,000 FY Direct costs

“Roles of voltage sensor, S100A1 and calmodulin in skeletal muscle Ca2+ signals.

Role: Co-Investigator (100% effort)

 

R37-AR042703                    Cannon, SC (PI)                                           2/1/17 -1/31/19

NIH/NIAMS                                                                           $250,000 FY Direct costs

“Molecular Physiology of Myotonia and periodic paralysis”

Role: Co-Investigator (5% effort)

 

R01-AR055099                    Schneider MF (PI)                                       2/15/07 -1/31/12                  

NIH/NIAMS                                                                           $334,125 FY Total cost

Control of Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibers                      

Role: Co-Investigator (100% effort)

 

R01-NS042839                    Schneider MF (PI)                                        7/3/02/ -5/31/2008

NIH/NINDS                                                                           $314,078 FY Total cost

Local Ca2+ signaling in sympathetic ganglion neurons           

Role: Co-Investigator (100% effort)

Community Service

Administrative Service

 

2015-present            Member: Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate Program in Life Science, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore County.

2015-present            Member: Interdisciplinary Training Program in Muscle Biology. University of Maryland School of Medicine.

2018-Present            Admission Committee: Cellular and Molecular Biomedical Science (CMBS) MS Program, Graduate Program in Life Science, University of Maryland, Baltimore

2019-present            Admission Committee: Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate Program in Life Science, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland Baltimore County.

 

Thesis Committees

 

2016-2020                 Member: PhD Student: Quinton Banks, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine. Dissertation title: Optical Recordings of Action Potentials and Voltage Sensing Domains. Thesis Committee Director: Dr. M.F. Schneider.

 

2018-present            Member: PhD Student: Anicca Harriot. Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine. Dissertation Title: TBD. Thesis Committee Director: Dr. C.W. Ward.   

 

PhD program Teaching/Training/Mentoring

 

2007-2010                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Benjamin L. Prosser, Program in Molecular Medicine (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 4-6 hours per week. (Current position: Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).

 

2007                           Laboratory Rotation Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Dushon D. Riley, Program in Neuroscience (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 1-2 hours/week for 2 months. (Current position: ORISE Fellow at Food and Drug Administration).

 

2008-2012                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Patrick Robison, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 4-6 hours per week. (Current position: Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Physiology, Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

 

2011-2013                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Tova Neustadt Schachter, Program in Biochemistry, (University of Maryland School of Medicine) 4-6 hours per week. (Current position: Adjunct Professor at Maalot Baltimore).

 

2011-2013                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Jeremiah Brown, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 4-6 hours per week. (Current position: QC Chemist at SPI Pharma).

 

2014-2020            Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Sarah Russell, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 1-2 hours per week. 

 

2014-2018                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Camilo Venegas, Program in Molecular Medicine (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 2-4 hours per week.

 

2015                           Laboratory Rotation Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Stephen Pratt, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 1-2 hours/week for 2 months. (Postdoctoral Fellow at Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation).

 

2016-2020                 Research Co-Mentor. PhD Student: Quinton Banks, Program in Biochemistry (University of Maryland School of Medicine), 4-5 hours per week. (Current position: Biomedical Associate at Milken Institute, D.C.).

 

Undergraduate Student Teaching/Mentoring

 

2010                           Co-Mentor: National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), STEP-UP summer program.

                                    Student: Ashwin Kadambi, daily interaction and training for the summer. (Current position: enrolled in Master of Public Health, Eastern Virginia Medical School, VA).

2011                           Co-Mentor: Towson University Research Summer Program.

                                    Student: Moses Demehin, daily interaction and training for the summer. (Current position: enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy Program at University of Maryland School of Pharmacy).

 

Professional Activity

Editorship and Peer reviewing

2011-present            Editor, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Los Angeles)

2012-present            Reviewer, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

2015-present            Reviewer, Journal of Physiology

2015-present            Reviewer, Journal of General Physiology

2015-present            Reviewer, Frontiers in Physiology

2015-present            Reviewer, Journal of Visual Experimentation

2015-present            Reviewer, Frontiers in Cell Neuroscience

2015-present            Reviewer, Physiological Reports

2016-present            Reviewer, Skeletal Muscle

2016-present            Guest Editor, Journal of Diabetes Research

 
 

Reviewing Grants:

2018                           Grant Reviewer, Medical Research Council, United Kingdom.

 

Organizer of Academic Meetings

 2015                           Chair: Gordon Research Seminar, preceding Gordon Research Conference: Muscle Excitation/Contraction Coupling.

Lab Techniques and Equipment

-Primary skeletal muscle cells and neuronal culture

-Ca2+ imaging

-Electrophysiology

-Confocal imaging

-In vitro skeletal muscle functional assays

-In vivo muscle gene transfer

-Cellular microinjection and micromanipulation