Skip to main content

Paul A. Antony, MD

Academic Title:

Assistant Professor

Primary Appointment:


Secondary Appointment(s):

Microbiology and Immunology

Additional Title:

Laboratory of Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy in the Program in Molecular Microbiology and Immunology; Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Program; and Cancer Center Member


MSTF, 7-34D

Phone (Primary):

(410) 706-6566


(410) 706-8414

Education and Training


  • 1994 - B.S., Biochemistry, University of Michigan, Literature, Science, and Arts
  • 2000 - M.D. with Distinction in Research, University of Michigan Medical School           

Post Graduate Education and Training

  • 2000-2006  - Research Fellow, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, MD.
    Mentors: Nicholas P. Restifo, MD, Steven A. Rosenberg, MD, Ph.D.
  • 2006-2008 - Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology
  • 2006-2010 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
  • 2010-2012 - Johns Hopkins University, Advance Academic Programs

Highlighted Publications

Diaz, LA.; Endres, J.; Antony PA; Pai, R.; Bishu, S.; Fox, DA.: Murine splenocytes can support human T cell responses and prime human T cells to become autoreactive. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 41(9 Suppl.): S34.,1998.

Antony PA, Yang H, Fan YY, et al. Altered Expression of Intraepithelial Lymphocyte (IEL) Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF) mRNA in the Mouse. Gastroenterology 118 (4): 658 Part 1 Suppl. 2 April 2000.

Kiristioglu I, Antony PA, Fan Y, Forbush B, Mosley RL, Yang H, Teitelbaum DH. Total Parental Nutrition-Associated Changes in Mouse Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Vol. 47, No. 5 May 2000

Yang H, Kiritioglu I,  Fan Y, Forbush B, Bishiop DK, Antony PA, Zhou H, Teitelbaum DH. Interferon-gamma expression by intraepithelial lymphocytes results in a loss of epithelial barrier function in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. Ann Surg. 2002 Aug;236(2):226-34.

Restifo NP, Antony PA, Finkelstein SE, Leitner WW, Surman DP, Theoret MR, Touloukian CE. Assumptions of the tumor 'escape' hypothesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 2002 Feb;12(1):81-6.

Additional Publication Citations

Antony PA, Restifo NP. Do CD4+ CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells hinder tumor immunotherapy? J Immunother. 2002 May-Jun;25(3):202-6.

Diaz LA Jr, Pai R, Endres J, Antony PA, Duzyj C, Bishu S, Morita Y, Fox DA. Xenogeneic cells and superantigen induce human T-cell activation in the absence of T-cell recognition of xenoantigen. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Sep;142(3):149-57.

Overwijk WW, Theoret MR, Finkelstein SE, Surman DR, de Jong LA, Vyth-Dreese FA, Dellemijn TA, Antony PA, Spiess PJ, Palmer DC, Heimann DM, Klebanoff CA, Yu Z, Hwang LN, Feigenbaum L, Kruisbeek AM, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Tumor regression and autoimmunity after reversal of a functionally tolerant state of self-reactive CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med. 2003 Aug 18;198(4):569-80.

Klebanoff CA, Finkelstein SE, Surman DR, Lichtman MK, Gattinoni L, Theoret MR, Grewal N, Spiess PJ, Antony PA, Palmer DC, Tagaya Y, Rosenberg SA, Waldmann TA, Restifo NP. IL-15 enhances the in vivo antitumor activity of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 17;101(7):1969-74.

Yang H, Antony PA, Wildhaber BE, Teitelbaum DH. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte gamma delta-T cell-derived keratinocyte growth factor modulates epithelial growth in the mouse. J Immunol. 2004 Apr 1;172(7):4151-8.

Finkelstein SE, Heimann DM, Klebanoff CA, Antony PA, Gattinoni L, Hinrichs CS, Hwang LN, Palmer DC, Spiess PJ, Surman DR, Wrzesiniski C, Yu Z, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Bedside to bench and back again: how animal models are guiding the development of new immunotherapies for cancer. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Aug;76(2):333-7.

Klebanoff CA, Khong HT, Antony PA, Palmer DC, Restifo NP. Sinks, suppressors and antigen presenters: how lymphodepletion enhances T cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy. Trends Immunol. 2005 Feb;26(2):111-7.

Antony PA, Restifo NP. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells, immunotherapy of cancer, and interleukin-2. J Immunother. 2005 Mar-Apr;28(2):120-8.

Klebanoff CA, Gattinoni L, Torabi-Parizi P, Kerstann K, Cardones AR, Finkelstein SE, Palmer DC, Antony PA, Hwang ST, Rosenberg SA, Waldmann TA, Restifo NP. Central memory self/tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells confer superior antitumor immunity compared with effector memory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 5;102(27):9571-6.

Antony PA, Piccirillo CA, Akpinarli A, Finkelstein SE, Speiss PJ, Surman DR, Palmer DC, Chan CC, Klebanoff CA, Overwijk WW, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally occurring T regulatory cells. COVER ARTICLE. J Immunol. 2005 Mar 1;174(5):2591-601. Second time in history that an animal was featured on the cover of JI. Cited over 600 times since 2005.

Gattinoni L, Finkelstein SE, Klebanoff CA, Antony PA, Palmer DC, Spiess PJ, Hwang LN, Yu Z, Wrzesinski C, Heimann DM, Surh CD, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Removal of homeostatic cytokine sinks by lymphodepletion enhances the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med. 2005 Oct 3;202(7):907-12.

Antony PA, Paulos CM, Ahmadzadeh M, Akpinarli A, Palmer DC, Sato N, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Klebanoff CA, Tagaya Y, Restifo NP. Interleukin-2-dependent mechanisms of tolerance and immunity in vivo. J Immunol. 2006 May 1;176(9):5255-66.

Gattinoni L, Ranganathan A, Surman DR, Palmer DC, Antony PA, Theoret MR, Heimann DM, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. CTLA-4 dysregulation of self/tumor-reactive CD8+ T-cell function is CD4+ T-cell dependent. Blood. 2006 Dec 1;108(12):3818-23

Ahmadzadeh M, Antony PA, Rosenberg SA. IL-2 and IL-15 each mediate de novo induction of FOXP3 expression in human tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells. J Immunother. 2007 Apr;30(3):294-302.

Paulos CM, Wrzesinski C, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Chieppa M, Cassard L, Palmer DC, Boni A, Muranski P, Yu Z, Gattinoni L, Antony PA, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Microbial translocation augments the function of adoptively transferred self/tumor-specific CD8+ T cells via TLR4 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug;117(8):2197-204.

Paulos CM, Kaiser A, Wrzesinski C, Hinrichs CS, Cassard L, Boni A, Muranski P, Sanchez-Perez L, Palmer DC, Yu Z, Antony PA, Gattinoni L, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Toll-like Receptors in Tumor Immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 15;13(18):5280-9.

Muranski PM*, Boni A*, Antony PA*, Irvine K, Cassard L, Gattinoni L, Wrzesinski C, Restifo NP. Tumor-specific Th17-polarized CD4+ T cells eradicate large established melanoma. Blood (2008). *Equal contribution.

Quezada, S., Simpson, T., Peggs, K., Mergoub, T, Muranksi, P., Antony, P.A., Restifo, N., Allison, JP. Tumor-reactive CD4+ T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts. March 15, 2010, Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Xie, Y., Akpinarli, A., Maris, C., Lane, M., Kwon, E-M., Restifo, NP., Antony, PA. Naïve tumor-specific CD4+ T cells differentiated in vivo eradicate established melanoma. March 15, 2010, Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Rausch MP, Irvine KR, Antony PA, Restifo NP, Cresswell P, Hastings KT. GILT Accelerates Autoimmunity to the Melanoma Antigen Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1. Journal of Immunology. 2010.

Muranski P, Borman ZA, Kerkar SP, Klebanoff CA, Ji Y, Sanchez-Perez L, Sukumar M, Reger RN, Yu Z, Kern SJ, Roychoudhuri R, Ferreyra GA, Shen W, Durum SK, Feigenbaum L, Palmer DC, Chan C, Antony PA, Laurence A, Danner RL, Gattinoni L and Restifo NP. Th17-derived memory cells are long-lived and retain a stem cell-like molecular signature. Immunity 2011

Jensen SM, Twitty CG, Maston LD, Antony PA, Lim M, Hu HM, Petrausch U, Restifo NP, Fox BA. Increased frequency of suppressive regulatory T cells and T cell-mediated antigen loss results in murine melanoma recurrence. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 15;189(2):767-76. PMID: 22723522

Goding, SR, Wilson, KA, Antony, PA. Combination of adoptive cell transfer, anti-PD-L1, and anti-LAG-3 antibodies for the treatment of recurrent tumors: Better with more. Oncoimmunology. August 15, 2013.

Goding SR, Wilson KA, Xie Y, Harris KM, Baxi A, Akpinarli A, Fulton A, Tamada K, Strome SE, Antony PA. Restoring Immune Function of Tumor-Specific CD4+ T Cells during Recurrence of Melanoma.J Immunol. 2013 May 1;190(9):4899-909. PMID: 23536636. Highlighted in “IN THIS ISSUE” May 1st, 2013.

Wilson, KA, Goding, SR, Neely, HR, Harris, KM, and Antony, P.A. Depletion of B220+NK1.1+ cells enhances the rejection of established melanoma by tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. Oncoimmunology May 2015.

Rosinksy, C, Antony, P.A. The role of pre-mNK cells in cancer progression. JITC 2016

Rus V, Nguyen V, Tatomir A, Lees JR, Mekala AP, Boodhoo D, Tegla CA, Luzina IG, Antony PA, Cudrici CD, Badea TC, Rus HG. RGC-32 Promotes Th17 Cell Differentiation and Enhances Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2017 Mar 29. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1602158.

Shunlin Jiang, Sandeep S. Joshi, Emmanual Kalapurakal, Tao Fan, Stephen R. Goding, Paul A. Antony, and Thomas J. Hornyak. Inhibition of Vemurafenib-associated MAP Kinase activation and induction of melanization in BRAFWT melanoma cells by 17-AAG. PLOS ONE. 2018.

PD-L1 Independent Mechanisms Control the Resistance of Melanoma to Immunotherapy with CD4+ T cells. Goding, SR., Wilson, KA, Rosinsky, C, Antony, PA. J Immunol. May 2, 2018. Highlighted in ACIR by James Allison, PhD.

Clinical Specialty Details

A plethora of studies this year 2017-2018 have shown that targeting neoantigens can treat cancer that were once thought untargetable by T cells. This has opened a gateway into the possibilities of using personalized TCR directed therapies and vaccines against any cancer especially epithelial cancers like breast, ovarian, GI, and cervical cancer.

Furthermore, neoantigen vaccines have also shown their supreme efficacy by matching results that only checkpoint therapies like PD-1 and CTLA-4 could obtain in melanoma. Could neoantigens represent the final frontier in immunotherapy? 

Our lab is focused on creating personalized vaccines from each patient against their own unique neoantigens. These vaccines will be combined with checkpoint blockade anti-PD1 to enhance tumor recognition and expand neoantigen specific T cells.