Since late 2001, the CVD have conducted two partial-dose studies of Dryvax® lyophilized vaccinia vaccine against small pox, first in vaccinia-naive individuals and more recently in individuals who previously have received smallpox immunization. CVD investigators at the Institute of Human Virology have been involved in investigations of the role of viral and host factors in the pathogenesis of AIDS and virally associated diseases. These studies integrate a multidisciplinary approach with scientists from the basic and clinical research arenas that translate to public health benefit. Projects in the domestic and international arena include pathogenesis, vaccine, and prevention research in the Caribbean and Brazil and encompass studies of adults and children. Other projects carried out by CVD investigators include epidemiologic studies, such as elucidation of the risk factors for acquisition of human papillomavirus among U.S. college students.